Created Early Spring 2004,                 updated Dec 24, 2012

A Detailed Chronology of the Bible
with secular events added

Sub-Headings:        Some Observations


What this is, is a detailed step by step timeline of all the events of the Bible prior to Acts. I think it is immensely helpful to be aware of events not really mentioned in context that really help you to get a feel for the times and days of early man, post flood era and the rest. For instance, Shem lives for 500 years after the flood. You will note that this is after Abraham is born. That early period, known in secular circles as Middle Bronze Age, was interesting due to the many generations that lived together at the same time. Knowledge did not need to be stored or recorded since those who had it were around for so long.

But the danger was when they began to die off, not all that far from each other. This massive loss of knowledge could have well added to a dark age in time. We know little of the Middle Bronze due to little being recorded. In fact, even the Late Bronze Age is a bit murky. It is the Iron Age where things begin to get recorded and last, so that we can see more clearly from then on. So one can better grasp the flow of events with the help of timelines. I feel I learned more just putting it together and carefully questioning everything. So have fun.

I do a more concise and reduced Chronology which shows clearly how the Timeline was calculated so that you can verify or challenge my figures and reasoning where it was needed. Added to that Chronology and this one are Supplemental Chronologies of particular subjects, Namely one dealing with times involving Jesus, one of the period of the Kings of Judah and Israel to show there are no missing gaps or conflicts, and one on the period of Judges and how to understand that as well. They are all listed at the end of this article.

My dates will possibly be off by 1 to 2 years as I chose to give a full year for any time said to be "in the year of." When giving the year of a king, it may say in the say 4th year of such and such. The 4th year as in the "20th century is filled with the 1900's" and the 4th year would mean a full 3 years and the 4th in progress. There is no 0 year for the birth of Christ. We have 1 BC and then 1 AD. And some dates are given by chronologists as 2 years such as 587/6 BC. Take your pick. So the years could be off by a couple or even 3 years. This will not be significant in archaeological or Biblical terms. Exact dates are an elusive pursuit and always subject to change. I include BC dates in some tables before I actually explain how I arrived at those dates. After you come across the explanation, you can go back and double check them if you like.

There is less explanation in this Timeline. I reserve that for the other Timelines in most cases. There may be a few minor corrections to make at this point but nothing serious. I'll also be making a few more references available and a few more dates very soon. Its been a long time coming.

I use the following abbreviations as dating descriptions:

AA = years After Adam                Some call this AM (Anno Mundi) but I don't speak Latin. I speak English.
BF = years Before the Flood
AF = years After the Flood
EX = Years After the Exodus
BC = Before Christ
AD = After Christ                       
AD actually stands for (Anno Domini) but again, I speak English, not Latin. But everyone commonly knows this one so I keep it.

 
0 AA Adam born 0 -1656 BF     -4006 BC   Genesis 5
130 AA Seth born 130 of Adam -1526 BF     -3876 BC   Genesis 5
235 AA Enosh born 105 of Seth -1421 BF     -3771 BC   Genesis 5
325 AA Kenan born 90 of Enosh -1331 BF     -3681 BC   Genesis 5
395 AA Mahalalel born 70 of Kenan -1261 BF     -3611 BC   Genesis 5
460 AA Jared born 65 of Mahalalel -1196 BF     -3546 BC   Genesis 5
622 AA Enoch born 162 of Jared -1034 BF     -3384 BC   Genesis 5
687 AA Methuselah born 65 of Enoch -969 BF     -3319 BC   Genesis 5
874 AA Lamech born 187 of Methuselah -782 BF     -3132 BC   Genesis 5
930 AA Adam died at 930 -726 BF     -3076 BC   Genesis 5
987 AA Enoch died at 365 -669 BF     -3019 BC   Genesis 5
1042 AA Seth died at 912 -614 BF     -2964 BC   Genesis 5
1056 AA Noah born 182 of Lamech -600 BF     -2950 BC   Genesis 5
1140 AA Enosh died at 905 -516 BF     -2866 BC   Genesis 5
1235 AA Kenan died at 910 -421 BF     -2771 BC   Genesis 5
1290 AA Mahalalel died at 895 -366 BF     -2716 BC   Genesis 5
1422 AA Jared died at 962 -234 BF     -2584 BC   Genesis 5
1556 AA Japheth born 500 of Noah -100 BF     -2450 BC   *estimation
1557 AA Ham born 501 of Noah -99 BF     -2449 BC   *estimation
1558 AA Shem born 502 of Noah: 600 -98 BF     -2448 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1651 AA Lamech died at 777 -5 BF     -2355 BC   Genesis 5
1656 AA Methuselah died at 969 0 BF     -2350 BC   Genesis 5
1656 AA Noah 600 at Flood 0 BF     -2350 BC   Genesis 7:11-12
                     
1656 AA Flood Begins, lasts 1 year 0 BF     -2350 BC   Genesis 7:24
                      Genesis 8:3-6
1657 AA  Flood Waters are gone 1 AF     -2349 BC   Genesis 8:13-14
1658 AA  Arpachshad born 100 of Shem: 438 2 AF     -2348 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1658 AA  Arpachshad born 2 years after flood 2 AF     -2348 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
                       
1693 AA  Shelah born 35 of Arpachshad: 433 37 AF     -2313 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1723 AA  Eber born 30 of Shelah: 464 67 AF     -2283 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1757 AA  Peleg born 34 of Eber: 239 101 AF     -2249 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1757 AA  Confusion of languages after this 101 AF     -2249 BC   Genesis 10:25
1787 AA  Reu born 30 of Peleg: 239 131 AF     -2219 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1819 AA  Serug born 32 of Reu: 230 163 AF     -2187 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1849 AA  Nahor born 30 of Serug: 148 193 AF     -2157 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1878 AA  Terah born 29 of Nahor: 205 222 AF     -2128 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1996 AA  Confusion of languages before now 340 AF     -2008 BC   Genesis 10:25
1996 AA  Peleg dies at 239 340 AF     -2008 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
1997 AA  Nahor dies at 230 341 AF     -2009 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
2006 AA  Noah dies at 950 350 AF     -2000 BC   Genesis 9:28
2008 AA  Abraham born 130 of Terah: 175 352 AF     -1998 BC   Genesis 12:1-4
2018 AA  Sarah born 10 after Abraham 362       -1988 BC   Genesis 17:17
2026 AA  Reu dies at 239 370       -1980 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
2049 AA  Serug dies at 230 393       -1957 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
2083 AA  Terah dies at 205 at Haran 427 AF     -1923 BC   Genesis 10:32
2083 AA  Abraham at 75 Leaves Haran 427 AF     -1923 BC   Genesis 12:1-4
2083 AA  1st 1/2 Sojourn begins 1st 215 wandering 427 AF     -1923 BC   Exodus 12:40
2094 AA  Ishmael born 86 of Abraham 438 AF     -1912 BC   Genesis 17:24
2096 AA  Arpachshad dies at 438 440 AF     -1910 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
2107 AA  Abraham Circumcised 451 AF     -1899 BC   Genesis 17:24
2107 AA  Sodom and Gomorrah Destroyed 451 AF     -1899 BC   Genesis 17:24
                     
2108 AA  Isaac born 100 of Abraham: 180 452 AF     -1898 BC   Genesis 21:5
2113 AA  Isaac weaned, persecuted at 5 457 AF     -1893 BC   Galatians 4:27-31
2126 AA  Shelah dies at 430 470 AF     -1906 BC   Genesis 5
2145 AA  Sarah dies at 127 near Isaac marry  489 AF     -1861 BC   Genesis 23:1, 17:17
2148 AA  Isaac marries Rebekah at 40 492 AF     -1858 BC   Genesis 25:20
2158 AA  Shem dies at 600 502 AF     -1848 BC   Genesis 11:10-26
2168 AA  Jacob born 60 of Isaac: 147 512 AF     -1838 BC   Genesis 25:26
2183 AA  Abraham dies at 175 527 AF     -1823 BC   Genesis 25:7
2187 AA  Eber dies at 464 531 AF     -1819 BC   Genesis 5
2246 AA  Jacob begins serving Laban 590 AF     -1756 BC   *estimation
2253 AA  Jacob gets married, works 7 more 597 AF     -1749 BC   *estimation
2253 AA  Reuben born 85 of Jacob/Leah 597 AF     -1749 BC   *estimation
2254 AA  Simeon born 86 of Jacob/Leah 598 AF     -1748 BC   *estimation
2255 AA  Levi born 87 of Jacob: 137 599 AF     -1747 BC   *estimation
2255 AA  Judah born 87* of Jacob/Leah 599 AF     -1747 BC   *estimation
2257 AA  Issachar born 89 of Jacob/Leah 601 AF     -1749 BC   *estimation
2258 AA  Zebulun born 90 of Jacob/Leah 602 AF     -1748 BC   *estimation
2259 AA  Dinah born 91* of Jacob/Leah 603 AF     -1747 BC   *estimation
2259 AA  Joseph born 91 of Jacob:110 603 AF     -1747 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
2259 AA  Jacob 6 yrs more for Laban 603 AF     -1747 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
2265 AA  Jacob leaves Laban after 6 609 AF     -1741 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
    Jacob moves to Succoth 7 yrs               Genesis 33:17
    Jacob camped at Schechem 616             Genesis 33:18
    Dinah violated, seduced ~13* 616             Genesis 34:2-5
    Jacob moves to Bethel 616             Genesis 35:1
    Deborah nurse dies at Bethel               Genesis 35:8
    Jacob to Ephrath/Bethlehem 617             Genesis 35:16
    Rachel dies having Benjamin               Genesis 35:19
      on way to Bethlehem                
    Jacob goes to Mamre/Hebron 618 AF           *estimation
2276 AA  Joseph Sold into Slavery at 17 620 AF     -1730 BC   Genesis 37:1-3,26-28,36
2288 AA  Jacob in Hebron w/ Isaac now 632 AF     -1718 BC   Genesis 35:27
2288 AA  Isaac dies at 180 in Hebron 632 AF     -1718 BC   Genesis 35:28
2289 AA  Joseph Pharaoh appoints 633 AF     -1717 BC   Genesis 41:46
      to power at age 30                
                       
                     
2276 AA  Joseph Sold into Slavery at 17 620 AF     -1730 BC   Genesis 37:1-3,26-28,36
2276 AA  Joseph serves Potiphar ~6 yrs 620 AF     -1730 BC    
2282 AA  Joseph serves in prison 7yrs 626 AF     -1724 BC    
2287 AA  Joseph interprets dreams: 2 yrs 631 AF     -1719 BC   Genesis 41:1
2289 AA  Joseph Pharaoh appoints him 633 AF     -1717 BC   Genesis 41:46
    to power at 30                
2289 AA  7 years of good harvest begin 633 AF     -1717 BC    
  Joseph has 2 sons born                
    before famine                
2296 AA  7 years of bad harvest begins 640 AF     -1710 BC    
2298 AA  2 years of famine past 642 AF     -1708 BC   Genesis 45:6-11
2298 AA  Jacob comes to Egypt at 130 642 AF     -1708 BC   Genesis 47:9
2298 AA  Joseph is 39 642 AF     -1708 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
2298 AA  Sojourn in Egypt, begins 2nd 215 642 AF     -1708 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
                     
2315 AA  Jacob dies at 147 659 AF     -1693 BC   Genesis 47:28-29
2285 AA  Kohath born 30 of Levi * 629 AF     -1721 BC   Exodus 6:16
2313 AA Amram born 28 of Kohath * 657 AF     -1693 BC    
2369 AA  Joseph dies at 110 713 AF     -1637 BC    
2378 AA  Mt. Thera Major Eruption 722 AF     -1628 BC    
2392 AA  Levi dies at 137 736 AF     -1614 BC   Exodus 6:16
                       
2433 AA  Moses born 120 of Amram * 777 AF     -1573 BC   Exodus 6:20
2450 AA Amram dies at 137 * 794 AF     -1556 BC    
2473 AA  Moses at 40 flees to Midian 817 AF     -1533 BC    
2513 AA  Moses at 80 leads Exodus 857 AF 0 EX -1493 BC    
    Israel wanders 40 years                
2553 AA  Moses at 120 dies 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC    
2553 AA  Joshua takes over Israel 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC    
2553 AA  Judges Period Begins 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC    
                       
    Judges Period 356 years long                
                       
 2847   Huge Climate Disruption in Tree Rings         -1159 BC    
2909 AA  Judges ENDS

1253

AF 396 EX -1097 BC    
2909 AA  Saul 40 years 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC   Acts 13: 21
2949 AA  David 40 years 1293 AF 436 EX -1057 BC   2 Samuel 5: 4
2989 AA  Solomon 40 years 1333 AF 476 EX -1017 BC   1 Kings 11: 42
2993 AA  Solomon's 4th Year 1337 AF 480 EX -1013 BC    
2993 AA  Temple Construction begins 1337 AF 480 EX -1013 BC    
3029 AA  Reheboam 17 years 1373 AF 516 EX -977 BC   1 Kings 14: 21
3029 AA  Israel Separates 1373 AF 516 EX -977 BC    
3046 AA  Abijam 3 years 1390 AF 533 EX -960 BC   1 Kings 15: 1-2
3049 AA  Asa 41 years 1393 AF 536 EX -957 BC   1 Kings 15: 9-10
3090 AA  Jehoshaphat 25 years 1434 AF 577 EX -916 BC   1 Kings 22: 42
3111 AA  Jehoram* 1st 4 of 8 Co-rex 1455 AF 598 EX -891 BC   2 Kings 8: 17
    w/Jehoshaphat's 21st                
3115 AA  Jehoram* Last 4 of 8 alone begins 1459 AF 602 EX -895 BC    
3119 AA  Ahaziah 1 year 1463 AF 606 EX -887 BC   2 Kings 8: 26
3120 AA  Athaliah 7 years 1464 AF 607 EX -886 BC   2 Kings 11: 3-4
3127 AA  Jehoash 40 years 1471 AF 614 EX -879 BC   2 Kings 12: 1
3167 AA  Amaziah 29 years 1511 AF 654 EX -839 BC   2 Kings 14: 1-2
3196 AA  Uzziah 52 years 1540 AF 683 EX -810 BC   2 Kings 15: 1-2
3248 AA  Jotham 16 years 1592 AF 735 EX -758 BC   2 Kings 15: 32-33
3264 AA  Ahaz 16 years 1608 AF 751 EX -742 BC   2 Kings 16: 1-2
3280 AA  Hezekiah 29 years 1624 AF 767 EX -726 BC   2 Kings 18: 2
3286 AA  Hezekiah's 6th year 1630 AF 773 EX -720 BC   2 Kings 18: 11
3286 AA  Shalmaneser Hoshea/Israel Falls to Assyria 1630 AF 773 EX -720 BC   2 Kings 18: 11
3309 AA  Manasseh 55 years 1653 AF 796 EX -697 BC   2 Kings 21: 1
3364 AA  Amon 2 years 1708 AF 851 EX -642 BC   2 Kings 21: 19
3366 AA  Josiah 31 years 1710 AF 853 EX -640 BC   2 Kings 22: 1
3397 AA  *Jehoahaz 0 years 3 months 1741 AF 884 EX -609 BC   2 Kings 23: 31
3397 AA  Jehoiakim 11 years 1741 AF 884 EX -609 BC   2 Kings 23: 36
3408 AA  *Jehoiachin 0 years 3 months 1752 AF 895 EX -598 BC   2 Kings 24: 8
3408 AA  Zedekiah 11 years 1752 AF 895 EX -598 BC   2 Kings 24: 18
3419 AA  Jerusalem  & Judah Falls 1763 AF 906 EX -587 BC    
3419 AA  Israel  Fulfills 390 Years 1763 AF 906 EX -587 BC    
                     
  510 Years for Saul to Judah's Fall                
  426 Years for Solmn's 4th to Judah's Fall                
  133 Years for Israel's Fall to Judah's Fall                
                     
3034 AA  Shishak attacks Rehoboam 1378 AF 521 EX -972 BC   1 Kings 14:25
3235 AA  Menahem bribes Pul of Assyria  ++ 1579 AF 722 EX -771 BC   2 Kings 15:19
3264 AA  Tiglathpileser attacks Pekah/Israel   ++ 1608 AF 751 EX -742 BC   2 Kings 15:29
3284 AA  Shalmaneser attacks Hoshea 1628 AF 771 EX -718 BC   2 Kings 18:9
3286 AA  Shalmaneser defeats Hoshea 1630 AF 773 EX -720 BC   2 Kings 18:11
3294 AA  Sennacherib defeated, killed 1638 AF 781 EX -712 BC   2 Kings 18:13
3397 AA  Neco kills Josiah 1741 AF 884 EX -609 BC   2 Kings 23:29
3401 AA  Nebuchadrezzar defeats Neco 1745 AF 888 EX -605 BC   Jeremiah 46:2
                       
3467 AA  Babylon falls to Cyrus of Persia 1811 AF     -539 BC    
3489 AA  Darius of Medo-Persia 2nd year 1833 AF     -517 BC    
3489 AA  Zechariahs 1:12 70 years since fall of Jerusalem 1833 AF     -517 BC    
                       
3561 AA  Artaxerxes 20th decree to rebuild Jerusalem 1905 AF     -445 BC    
      483 Lunar years to AD 29         -445 BC    
      476 Solar years to AD 29         -445 BC    
                       
4004 AA  Jesus born in Fall 2 BC 2348 AF     -2 BC    
4034 AA  Jesus Baptized AD 29 2378 AF     29 AD    
4034 AA  Completed 476 Solar years to AD 29 2378 AF     29 AD    
      69 weeks of years                
4038 AA  Jesus Crucified, 19th Year of Tiberius  2282 AF     33 AD    
                       
4075 AA  Titus / Rome Conquers Jerusalem 2319 AF     70 AD    

 


Some Observations
Back to Top

Left Column lists the lifespan of each person and the years after the flood (AF) when they were born and the BC date for that. The Right Column lists the deaths and the years after the flood when it happened as well as BC dates. Peleg was the 1st of the 9 1st-patriarchs to die. It was in his days the languages were confused. But note that Hebrews were named for Eber/Heber. Eber outlived all the early patriarchs born before Abraham. I gather that all who came after Eber in his line were called Hebrews, perhaps identified as such due to his long life. Eber even outlived Abraham. How's that for long living? But if Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, and Terah were all Hebrew speakers, then it allows for a vast number of different people who were Hebrews.

But it is also possible that they were called Hebrews due only to lineage and not necessarily due to the same language. The Bible was not specific.

Jacob was the only one not to live in the time of Shem. In fact, nearly all patriarchs died before Jacob. Eber and Abraham were still living when Jacob was born. Isaac dies and leaves Jacob the only remaining legacy of the lineage that came from Shem to Abraham.

Born         Age     AF       BC Died                    AF        BC
Arpachshad  438      2         -2348 BC
Shelah           433      37       -2313 BC
Eber              464      67       -2283 BC
Peleg            239      101     -2249 BC
Reu               239      131     -2219 BC
Serug            230     163      -2187 BC
Nahor           148      193      -2157 BC
Terah            205      222     -2128 BC
Peleg dies                340     -2008 BC
Nahor dies                341     -2009 BC
Noah dies                 350     -2000 BC
Abraham     175       352     -1998 BC
Reu dies                   370       -1980 BC
Serug dies                393      -1957 BC
Terah dies                427        -1923 BC
Abraham begins Wandering -1923 BC
Arpachshad dies     440        -1910 BC
Shelah dies              470       -1906 BC
Isaac   180     452     -1898 BC Jacob and his family begin a new legacy in Canaan and Egypt. Joseph dies in 713 AF, -1637 BC. The famous Mt. Thera eruption is dated by tree rings to -1628 BC, 722 AF. Moses was born in 777 AF. Is that a coincidence, the 777? I  wonder! By the time of Moses, all Hebrew male births were to be killed. Whoever the Pharaoh was, he did not know of Joseph. Joseph had been dead 64 years by that time and Egypt had been split into several dynasties ruling in different parts of Egypt at the same time.

Mt. Thera is estimated by Egyptologists to be in the reign of Thutmose/Tuthmosis III. If this is so, then Moses had to come after him. Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III were likely candidates for the attempt to kill male babies of the Hebrew Israelites. I say emphatically, that Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten was the Pharaoh who opposed Moses when he was 40. Egyptian Chronology varies by about 150 years, after Bible dates. This is accounted for in the tree ring date of -1628 BC of Thera and the dark missing years of accounting would 

Shem dies                502     -1848 BC
Jacob 147     512     -1838 BC
Abraham dies          527     -1823 BC
Eber dies                  531     -1819 BC
Levi     137     599     -1747
Isaac dies                 632     -1718 BC
Joseph appointed by Pharaoh   633    -1717 BC
Jacob comes to Egypt                642    -1708 BC
2nd half of wandering, being in Egypt, begins
Amram*          137     657     -1693 BC
Joseph dies             713     -1637 BC
Mt. Thera Major Eruption 722 AF>>
>>Tree Ring Dating to -1628 BC

Levi dies                  736     -1614 BC
Moses            120     777     -1573 BC
Exodus takes place 857     -1493 BC
Joshua begins rule          -1453 BC
Judges Period begins   
-1453 BC
Moses dies              897     -1453 BC

most likely be found in the 20th dynasty, where a number of kings' names were not even known and were all assigned as a Rameses with a number after 3. Recovery in the 21st dynasty was gradual. Egyptian dating is loaded with many holes. It has always been assumed that the King/Pharaoh lists were complete, with no missing time unanswered for. This assumption was a serious mistake. Both RadioCarbon dating and Tree Ring dating have invalidated many time periods in Egyptian archaeology. But Egyptologists, perhaps more than any other archaeological discipline, seem to hate scientific methods of cross reference that can help verify or even suggest errors. They have long resisted radiometric and dendro-chronological dating methods. Other cultures made to harmonize with C14 dating and tree ring dating also vary with Egyptian chronology. But Bible methods produce wonderful results. But of course!

I hope to elaborate far more on the things I raise here briefly, in more depth, in the future.

Another very important observation to make is that most patriarchs did die in quick succession. Most were dead by the birth of Isaac and all were dead by the birth of Levi, Isaac's grandson. This dying off of the many wise old men of knowledge had to have a devastating effect on the human race. Many had likely relied on these old men for knowledge and memories and not bothered with recording most info on something that could outlast the passing of the old men of wisdom. When the patriarchs died, much knowledge was almost certainly lost and was likely the reason for the dark ages of archaeology.

As well, those who were bent on ruling vast empires were not interested in truth or real history. They invented their own versions of the past, to support their visions and ambitions. The same thing will happen again when the Antichrist comes.

---------------------------------

More on the Confusion of the Languages - Abraham was said to speak Hebrew and was identified as being Hebrew. So the confusion of languages had to take place in the days of Eber. Eber gave birth to Peleg. This is important.

The languages were changed/confused during the days of Peleg, too. So Peleg had to be born, at least, when the languages were changed. That's 2249 BC. So it would be at least after 2249 BC. Peleg died in 2008 BC so the languages had to be changed before then. So there was a 241 period in which it could have happened. Given the archaeological evidence, I would say it was much closer to his days near to birth than near his death. Archaeology seems to show a change about 2100 BC, with many more languages appearing at that time. But dates in archaeology do vary from 2300 BC to 2000 BC or even 1900 BC. They are all over the place but one can discern the change in languages where Sumerian was the only language and then Akkadian seemed prevalent in the plains of Sumer/Shinar and then suddenly many languages appear, as if invaders had suddenly descended all around. We know better.

The original language appears to be Sumerian at least from what seems to be the flood marker and changes in cultures in various city mounds excavated. Then right after the flood, Akkadian seems to prevail for a short time. I suspect Akkadian was the same as Sumerian except for perhaps a different alphabet or cuneiform symbols. Akkadian may be another alphabet used to record in the Sumerian language, the original language prior to the confusion. Akkadian could possibly be an indication of change, but the evidence is not clear. Akkadian does seem to be supreme and uncontested at first. Nimrod founded Shinar and Accad/Akkad. Shinar appears as Sumer in the tablets discovered.

Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed in 1899 BC, which I round to 1900 BC as the time to look for in the archaeological records.

We have near to -2249 BC for the language confusion and that was only 100 years after the waters receded from the flood in -2349 BC. Because Peleg was a son of Eber, it would be logical that Eber would recall this event as the time (or near that time) when the languages were changed and it would get passed on that way. Peleg could have possibly died prematurely in battle or accident. We do not know.

The next series of events highlights how easy it is to put God in 2nd place behind Political Correctness or other such perceived priorities and authorities. The Bible makes it clear that Jacob comes to Laban and agrees to work for Laban for 7 years in order to marry Rachel. After the 7 years, Laban throws a party, likely gets Jacob full of liquor, and then sneaks in Rachel's sister, Leah, into the tent to wait for Jacob. He goes in, in the dark. Remember that before electricity, it was very dark and you did not bring fire near tents except by little lamps with wicks. Jacob does not discover the switch till morning. He complains but Laban says he will give Rachel, too, but, of course, would need another 7 years in consideration of 2 brides given instead of one. Laban did not want to lose good help but it was still dirty.

Jacob agrees and begins having babies with Leah, AFTER having worked 7 years already. Dr. Floyd Jones, in consideration of how young Dinah was, by modern 21st century standards of the USA, when she was violated/seduced, could not possibly imagine that Jacob had 12 kids by 4 women in 7 years. It's quite easy, with 4 wives. One could do it with time to spare. But Dinah ends up being "only" 13 by his estimation, which I agree with, and so he does not believe that she would be let out alone and so he concludes, against what the scriptures clearly state, and suggests that Jacob began having kids at the start of his service, 7 years before he was even married. God must have made a mistake in His figuring I guess. I am being sarcastic.

I bring this up because I do respect the work of Jones very much and highly recommend his book, mentioned elsewhere. But to ignore the Bible's clear statements and opt for another accounting is not acceptable and not what he normally suggests in his interpretations, which normally favor accepting God's word above all other sources. A moment of inconsistency. Even the best appear to do it at times. Jones does it here. I don't. Jones is overcome by his certainty, as I see it, that our ways today are correct and the way it was done 3700 years ago by God's people as well. But the truth is, that God's people were much different and had a much different outlook than we have today. A woman (according to then) of 13 was a perfectly acceptable age to marry in many circumstances.

Leah quickly has 4 sons, likely born fairly close to each other. 4 sons at 10 months each ( I had to give Leah at least a month's break between each child, the poor thing ) requires only 3 years and 4 months. I then give Leah a year break (its only fair) before having 3 more. 3 kids at 10 months, 30 months, is 2.5 years. 3.5 years + 1 + 2.5 = 7 years. Easily done, unless you are Leah. Dinah would have been born near the same time as or just before Joseph. Jacob packs up and moves on, leaving double dealing Laban behind. I show his steps after that as well.

2168 AA  Jacob born 60 of Isaac: 147 512 AF     -1838 BC   Genesis 25:26
2183 AA  Abraham dies at 175 527 AF     -1823 BC   Genesis 25:7
2187 AA  Eber dies at 464 531 AF     -1819 BC   Genesis 5
2246 AA  Jacob begins serving Laban 590 AF     -1756 BC   *estimation
2253 AA  Jacob gets married, works 7 more 597 AF     -1749 BC   *estimation
2253 AA  Reuben born 85 of Jacob/Leah 597 AF     -1749 BC   *estimation
2254 AA  Simeon born 86 of Jacob/Leah 598 AF     -1748 BC   *estimation
2255 AA  Levi born 87 of Jacob: 137 599 AF     -1747 BC   *estimation
2255 AA  Judah born 87* of Jacob/Leah 599 AF     -1747 BC   *estimation
2257 AA  Issachar born 89 of Jacob/Leah 601 AF     -1749 BC   *estimation
2258 AA  Zebulun born 90 of Jacob/Leah 602 AF     -1748 BC   *estimation
2259 AA  Dinah born 91* of Jacob/Leah 603 AF     -1747 BC   *estimation
2259 AA  Joseph born 91 of Jacob:110 603 AF     -1747 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
2259 AA  Jacob begins 6 more for Laban 603 AF     -1747 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
2265 AA  Jacob leaves Laban after 6 609 AF     -1741 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
    Jacob moves to Succoth 7 yrs               Genesis 33:17
    Jacob camped at Shechem 616 AF      -1734 BC   Genesis 33:18
    Dinah violated, seduced ~13* 616 AF           Genesis 34:2-5
    Jacob moves to Bethel 616 AF           Genesis 35:1
    Deborah nurse dies at Bethel               Genesis 35:8
    Jacob to Ephrath/Bethlehem 617 AF      -1733 BC    Genesis 35:16
    Rachel dies having Benjamin               Genesis 35:19
      on way to Bethlehem                
    Jacob goes to Mamre/Hebron 618 AF      -1732 BC    *estimation
2276 AA  Joseph Sold into Slavery at 17 620 AF     -1730 BC   Genesis 37:1-3,26-28,36
2288 AA  Jacob in Hebron w/ Isaac by now 632 AF     -1718 BC   Genesis 35:27

Now Benjamin was born long after the other kids. His mother dies giving birth to him on the way to Bethlehem, estimated to be no more than 8 years after leaving Laban. He was at Succoth for some time, having even built a considerable house and homestead before hand. But here is the thing. Jacob and Benjamin embrace when Joseph reveals himself in Egypt. Joseph remembers Benjamin. We do not know if Benjamin also remembered him or not. But if we allow Joseph a couple years at Hebron before he is sold into slavery, that allows Benjamin to be 3 before Joseph is sold. Ussher allows only 1 year, so that Joseph at least knows about Benjamin. Any less and that would not work. But even with this scenario, Dinah is merely 15, still quite young by today's silly standard.

But for Joseph to have had a few memories of Benjamin would require 2 or 3 years at the least. If Benjamin was to remember Joseph much at all, we might need him to be 4 or 5 before Joseph disappears. At least 3 for sure. So 13 is likely, 12 is possible, 11 does seem a little young, but still not outside of the realm of possibility for back then. So it would seem right to me to give at least 5 or 6 years at Succoth before moving on.

Also consider that Dinah's brothers were quite upset over the treatment of their sister. Hamor's son, Shechem, violates Dinah when he sees her among his village's daughters and falls for her. The Bible says he "humbled" her. That is how most Bible translations word it. Humiliated is used 2 or 3 times in the Bibles I checked. But this type of description is often used in virgins being deflowered. it does not necessarily indicate rape, though it could. But the account also says that Shechem spoke kindly/comfortingly to her, as most Bibles put it. She either consented or consented after the initial forcing with some persuasion. It would not be the first time that such a thing has happened where a woman at first refused and then reluctantly writes it off and consents to marriage or a continued relationship.

So from the Bible's viewpoint, it was not rape. That is often the word used but such a charge would never be allowed according to the circumstances described. Rape might be what they would call it today since an initial no seals the deal. But if a change of heart occurs, it is not rape by Bible standards. The Bible's standards and those of today clearly differ. I prefer God's definition in my judgment. Any judgment the differs from God's is from the devil. I'll leave it at that.

Jacob's own boys were no angels in their lives so I do not understand the anger if Dinah relented and went along with the humbling before or after. It was not uncommon and never has been. I know of a number of instances in my lifetime where a woman feigned "no," only to accept the intrusion and continue the relationship. Regardless of the political correctness doctrine of no means no; God says that one must act in accordance with the charge and if the woman forgave the man, then it is not rape. Forgiving is not in harmony with a woman who truly did not want the violation and remains angry or deeply hurt and wants nothing more to do with the man.

But what might have very much angered Dinah's brothers is if she had been quite young at the time of her being urged along rather reluctantly. If she were 11 or 12 and pre-pubescent, that just might have angered the boys as it did. And if she was not willing at first, then all the more resentment would be more understandable. Gen. 34:7 . . . "they were very angry, because he had done foolishness in Israel, to lie with the daughter of Jacob, and it should not be done in this way." The brothers were not happy about something in particular. Maybe they thought she was just too young to have been prevailed upon, when she was not even developed yet, being pre-pubescent.

But Jacob agreed with the marriage, Dinah agreed, and the boys "said" they agreed, but they lied. Jacob was quite unhappy about this treacherous action. He remembered it in his deathbed pronunciation. So while Dr. Jones does not think Dinah could be any less than 13, I am not so sure. 13 does seem to me to be the most likely solution, but not beyond the boundaries of other possibilities. Rather, I think that 15 is more unlikely than 12. But for sure, she is young by any measure.

Now Jones changing the birth dates of the boys, thereby changing their ages compared to Joseph's, does not harm the Chronology as it is not affected by the change, it is a slight to God's word, which says they were born after 7 years of labor when Jacob first married.

Our next little dilemma is with the generations between Levi and Moses. We know who, but not when people were born. It does not affect the Timeline but is still interesting and I wanted to clear up what I had done. We do not know when Levi had Kohath, nor when Kohath had Amram. We do not know the ages of Kohath and Amram. We do know when Moses was born by subtracting 80 years from the Exodus, but do not know how old Amram was at the time of Moses' birth. But in the Dead Sea Scrolls, there is a "Testament of Amram," labeled  Scroll 4Q543-8 which gives figures for Amram which I supply just after this chart below.

This lineage or that of Judah would confirm this prophecy. While it was only 4 generations, as you can see, the average number of years when child was born, is considerable. So while 4 generations as a while does not allow for a lot of breeding, when this particular 4 generations in considered, it is quite a bit of time and many lines of Israel might have been far more than 4 generations. Would you wait 58 years or so to marry and have kids? Of course, many more kids could have been born to each of these men but the Bible does not say if there were or not.
2259 AA Joseph born 91 of Jacob 603 AF     -1747 BC    
2285 AA Kohath* born 30 of Levi * 629 AF     -1721 BC      Guessed
2298 AA Jacob comes to Egypt at 130

642

AF     -1708 BC   Genesis 47:9
2298 AA Joseph is 39 642 AF     -1708 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
2298 AA 2nd 1/2 Sojourn begins 215 in Egypt 642 AF     -1708 BC   EXTRAPOLATION
2313 AA Amram* born 28 of Kohath *

657

AF     -1693 BC      Guessed
2315 AA Jacob dies at 147 659 AF     -1693 BC   Genesis 47:28-29
2369 AA Joseph dies at 110 713 AF     -1637 BC  
2378 AA Mt. Thera Major Eruption 722 AF     -1628 BC  
2392 AA Levi dies at 137 736 AF     -1614 BC   Exodus 6:16
2433 AA Moses born 120 of Amram * 777 AF     -1573 BC   Exodus 6:20
2450 AA Amram dies at 137 * 794 AF     -1556 BC     Scroll 4Q543-8*
2473 AA Moses at 40 flees to Midian 817 AF     -1533 BC    
2513 AA Moses at 80 leads Exodus 857 AF  0 EX -1493 BC    
2553 AA Moses dies at 120 897 AF  40 EX -1453 BC    

* Scroll 4Q543-8 from Dead Sea Scrolls, called Testament of Amram, states that Amram died at age 137 and 152 years after Jacob came to Egypt.

I cover the periods of the Judges, Kings, and Jesus in their own articles on chronology. I point out that Jesus was born in the fall of 2 BC. Being only 3 or 4 months before a new Roman year, placing it in 2 BC, could inflate my overall timeline by 8 or 9 months. The 480th year of the Exodus, in the 4th year of Solomon, was only 2 months into that year. So it could inflate my timeline by another 10 months. But then again, David technically reigned 40.5 years, not 40. So I got at least 18 extra months and take away 6 for David's time, and I still have 12 months I could take out of my timeline. This would make the flood date to 2349 BC, which is also the very year determined by dendrochronologists, who study tree rings for dating and climate change, when a very extreme abrupt change in climate disturbance is shown.

But since the tree rings would show no growth for the year the waters receded till gone, and that year after does also put us at 2349 BC as I have it above, then we arrive at 2349 BC without any change to my figures as they are. Imagine that the Bible and mainstream "Science" could agree on anything and to such exact agreement. Almost too much to believe. Someone pinch me so I know I'm not dreaming! I'm the only one to have brought (as best as I know) dendrochronology into Biblical discussions of chronology. But real science and accurate Bible chronology are bound to agree since God is the author of the Bible and tree rings are also His written record. Trees don't lie . . . but they do "speak" loud and clear!

Of course, since there are a number of incomplete years that make up this timeline and others, the variance could move one way or the other by a year or 2, maybe even 3. But we have no evidence for any or which ones they might be. What we have allows a perfect match. Its not bad, but its not necessarily permanent, either. Close enough, though!

You should be aware that agreement between the Bible and science "evidence" often agree. It is the academic "interpretation" of the evidence that often is seen in conflict. That same evidence can be shown to have much better interpretations applied to it and I will with time, God permitting. But it would seem to me that Timelines and Chronology were important to God and that He took the appropriate care to allow reasonably good calculations. Chronology and prophecy are often inseparable and both give good reason to have faith.


Related Articles

How to Interpret the Bible
The 7 days of Creation
- Are they literal or symbolic? - The best arguments yet, are here!

An Overview of Biblical Chronology - Tells how the Timeline is figured for Bible Chronology in a concise overview - From Adam to Jerusalem's fall in 70 AD.
The Chronology of the Judges Period - This period is confusing but it is very understandable once you know the secrets. I got'em!
Biblical Chronology of the Kings
- of both the Judean and Israelite kings together, resolving all problems and gaps!
Timelines of Jesus   -  The 483 years - 69/70 weeks of Daniel 9 to the birth, baptism, crucifixion, and resurrection with scriptures supplied.
A Detailed Chronology of the Bible - This covers every little detail along the way, so one can get a perspective of time as well as flow of events. Its a great way to become acquainted with the scriptures very quickly and gain a great oversight of the purpose of God, which is why its linked on this page.
Major Climate Impacts     Based on Secular dates and other considerations. These allow an intersection of certain Bible dates with certain and fairly reliable secular dates thru dendrochronology (tree-ring dating). Only here at Truth 1 !!!



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