Created Wed. July 8, 2009                updated Jul 31 017

 The Chronology of the Judges Period

Intro to the Judges
A Big Change in Wording
Ages of Joshua and Caleb
But What About 450 Years at Acts 13:20?    Jan 15 015
The Exodus to Jephthah's 300 Years
- A Table
Eusebius on Judges period
An Uncertain Time in Judges - and why!    Jan 15 015
Key Date, Solomon's Temple, 480 years  Jul 30 017
One More Thought

Related Articles

Intro to the Judges

The period of the Judges can be a very confusing one, if you try to make some sort of chronological sense out of it from within the period. But the Bible does give us solid dates with which to nail down times and events that solidly fix the period in place and define its length of time. From there, we will have to understand the intention behind Joshua and Judges. I would sum up Judges this way. It is a continuation of what Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy did. They established the creation and installation of the priesthood and nation of Israel and Judges set up the territories and boundaries to each tribe to establish the Nation of Israel and the priesthood with its cities of refuge.

These national and tribal boundaries were not supposed to be moved or tampered with. Israel was supposed to go out and conquer the Canaanites, per God's command, as God has the right to judge peoples and nations and prescribe judgment upon them. Men do not have that right. God placed limits on boundaries which only He could expand. Without His permission, Israel could not seek more territory than what was allowed to "him" by Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob/Israel.

So wars were waged and territories settled in. But there was yet another goal in this book that God had in mind. Israel had a repeated common continual problem in that he/she would not obey the commands of God nor drive out the Canaanite inhabitants as God had insisted upon. So problems fell upon Israel as he was left to find out why God commanded as He had. Israel was left undefended by God and soon was subdued and enslaved by the inhabitants around them.

But neither the book of Joshua or Judges starts off telling you this. It is not addressed until Judges 2:11, just after Joshua and his generation pass away in death in verses 8-10. And from chap. 2:11 to 3:7, the Bible gives a summary of the typical cycle of problems that Israel would go through, due to their own neglect of the laws of God. I felt I should put it here for you to read as it will help us understand the entirety of the period of the Judges.

Judges 2:
8  And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of Jehovah, died, being a son of a hundred and ten years.
9  And they buried him in the border of his inheritance, in Timnath-heres, in the hills of Ephraim on the north of Mount Gaash .
10  And also all that generation was gathered to their fathers, and another generation arose after them who had not known Jehovah, nor yet the works which He had done for Israel .

Judges 2:
11  And the sons of Israel did evil in the sight of Jehovah, and served the Baals.
12  And they forsook Jehovah, the God of their fathers, who brought them out from the land of Egypt . And they went after other gods of the gods of the peoples who were around them, and bowed themselves to them, and angered Jehovah.
13  Yea, they forsook Jehovah, and served Baal and the Ashtoreths.
14  And the anger of Jehovah glowed against Israel , and He gave them into the hand of plunderers; and they plundered them. And He sold them into the hand of their enemies all around, and they were not able to stand before their enemies any longer.
15  Wherever they went, the hand of Jehovah was against them for evil, as Jehovah had spoken, and as Jehovah had sworn to them. And it distressed them very much.
16  And Jehovah raised up judges, and they saved them from the hand of their plunderers.
17  But they also did not listen to their judges, but went whoring after other gods, and bowed themselves to them. They quickly turned aside out of the way in which their fathers walked to obey the commands of Jehovah. They did not do so.
18  And when Jehovah raised up judges to them, then Jehovah was with the judge, and rescued them out of the hand of their enemies all the days of the judge. For Jehovah took pity because of their groaning before their oppressors, and those that crushed them.
19  And at the death of the judge, it happened that they would turn and act more corruptly than their fathers, to go after other gods, to serve them, and to bow themselves to them. And they did not fall away from their own doings, and from their stubborn way.
20  And the anger of Jehovah glowed against Israel . And He said, Because this nation has transgressed My covenant which I commanded their fathers, and has not listened to My voice,
21  I also from now on will not expel any from before them of the nations that Joshua left when he died;
22  so that by them I may test Israel , whether they are keeping the way of Jehovah, to go in it, as their fathers kept it, or not.
23  And Jehovah left those nations without expelling them quickly. And He did not deliver them into the hand of Joshua.

Judges 3:
1  And these are the nations which Jehovah left in order to test Israel by them, all who did not know all the wars of Canaan;
2  only that the generations of the sons of Israel might know, to teach them war, only those who did not before know them:
3  five lords of the Philistines, and all the Canaanites, and the Sidonians, and the Hivites that lived in Mount Lebanon from Mount Baal-hermon to the entering of Hamath.
4  And they existed to test Israel by them, to know whether they would listen to the commands of Jehovah, which He had commanded their fathers by the hand of Moses.
5  And the sons of Israel lived among the Canaanites, the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.
6  And they took their daughters to themselves for wives, and gave their daughters to their sons, and they served their gods.
7  And the sons of Israel did that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah, and forgot Jehovah their God, and served the Baals and the Asherahs.

One might wonder how right after a generation who saw their parents die off for not having had faith in Jehovah and not obeying him, and came into Canaan and fought wars and still saw miracles, could produce another generation that completely ignored God, even as their grandparents had. Was it the fault of the parents such as Joshua and Caleb? Or was it just human nature? Whatever the answer, they are a good example of how not to do things and a warning to us who are still willing to learn and search out God to the best of our abilities.

But now as for the technique of telling a story and then begin telling it all over, perhaps in summary of from another point of focus, or something of a similar sort, we have other examples in the Bible. The first is in Genesis where the Creation is told from an overall large view, from the heavens and the earth being created, to Jehovah more precisely shaping the earth, which was void and desolate up to that time, in 6 days that He selected to perfect/complete it for life and His purposes. This account starts at Genesis 1:1 and lasts through 2:3. Then in 2:4, it tells the story of Creation over again, focusing on man and what he did in the early days which led to his fall from grace under God.

This exact sort of technique and style is repeated many times in the book of Revelation, where certain symbols might be introduced in one chapter, and then elaborated on, in another chapter, such as Babylon the Great over several chapters, or the scrolls and trumpets as symbols to be explained. The very end is shown to us in chap. 11:15-18 and then it starts over again in 11:19 and on into chap. 12, with new symbols and in a new direction, to a time before chap. 11's end. This is also what has happened in Judges 2, at verse 11. Literally, the oldest trick in the book; that book being the Bible.

So Judges is about Israel's many stupid follies and mistakes in not keeping the law of God delivered through Moses at Mt. Sinai. It is after chapter 3:7 that we are then given details about particular instances of these follies that happened again and again through the history of Israel and Judah, till finally Rome, by the will of God, extinguished Jerusalem, Judah, and Israel for good on earth. For it had been foreseen that earthly physical fleshly Jerusalem would be a failure. God's real, but not grasped in the days when prophecies were first given, intention was that "Israel" and "Jerusalem" had always been destined to have their ultimate fulfillment in a symbolic spiritual sense. What has reappeared in our day, the modern nation of Israel, is real enough, but it is not of God nor does it have anything to do with God's will and worship.

The Israel and Jerusalem of God are fulfilled in those who choose to accept the promises of salvation delivered to and through Abraham, and not the actual territory in the Middle East where fleshly Israel sits to day. Abraham becomes the father of all those who benefit from the salvation that was worked through his line, due to God promising this would all take place through his line of descent. Christians are the Israel of God and New Jerusalem, descendants of Abraham in a spiritual sense, according to promise and not because they were born of the "flesh" of Abraham.

It was not all clearly understood till it took on that greater fulfillment after Pentecost. Even then, many to day do not really understand what Paul or Peter and others spoke and taught on these "mysteries" for it was not granted to unbelievers to understand.

A Big Change in Wording
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The next problem is that there is a real change in descriptions after the days of Jephthah, who judged Israel for 6 years in Judges 11 through 12:7. Prior to that, we are given, in Judges 3:8, a line of periods where Israel would end up serving other peoples and nations around them and become bitterly oppressed, much as we are today in most places on earth. Some things never change, right? Then a judge would come along and lead them, guide them, call them back to their God, Jehovah, and lead them into battle to overthrow their oppressors, which were called periods "of rest." Perhaps relative freedom, we might say. We might also call it a return to God.

Judges 11:
4  And it happened after some time, the sons of Ammon fought with Israel .
11  And Jephthah went with the elders of Gilead , and the people appointed him head over them, and as commander. And Jephthah spoke all his words before Jehovah in Mizpeh.
12  And Jephthah sent messengers to the king of the sons of Ammon, saying, What have you to do with me, that you have come in to me to fight in my land?
13  And the king of the sons of Ammon said to the messengers of Jephthah, Because Israel took my land when he came up out of Egypt , from Arnon even to the Jabbok, and to the Jordan . And now, restore them in peace.
14  And Jephthah again sent messengers to the king of the sons of Ammon,
15  and said to him, So says Jephthah , Israel did not take the land of Moab , and the land of the sons of Ammon.
16  For when they came up out of Egypt , Israel went in the wilderness to the Sea of Reeds , and came in at Kadesh.
17  And Israel sent messengers to the king of Edom , saying, Please let me pass on through your land, and the king of Edom did not listen. And Israel sent also to the king of Moab , and he was not willing. And Israel remained in Kadesh.
18  And he went through the wilderness, and went around the land of Edom , and the land of Moab , and came in at the rising of the sun to the land of Moab . And they camped beyond Arnon, and did not come into the border of Moab , for Arnon was the border of Moab .
19  And Israel sent messengers to Sihon, the king of the Amorites the king of Heshbon, and Israel said to him, Please let us pass on through your land, to my place.
20  And Sihon did not trust Israel to pass on through his border. And Sihon gathered all his people and they camped in Jahaz, and fought with Israel .
21  And Jehovah the God of Israel gave Sihon and all his people into the hand of Israel , and they struck them. And Israel took possession of all the land of the Amorites, the inhabitants of that land.
22  And they took possession of all the border of the Amorites from Arnon and to the Jabbok, and from the wilderness, and to the Jordan .
23  And now, Jehovah the God of Israel has expelled the Amorite from before His people Israel . And would you possess it?
24  Whatever Chemosh your god causes you to possess, do you not possess it? And all that which Jehovah our God has expelled from before us, we will possess!
25  And now, are you at all any better than Balak the son of Zippor, the king of Moab ? Did he indeed ever strive with Israel ? Did he ever fight against them?
26  When Israel lived in Heshbon and its towns, and in Aroer and in its towns, in all the cities by the sides of Arnon three hundred years, then why have you not delivered them in that time?
27  So I have not sinned against you, and you are doing me wrong to fight against me. Jehovah the Judge shall judge today between the sons of Israel and the sons of Ammon.

12:7  And Jephthah judged Israel six years. And Jephthah the Gileadite died, and was buried in the cities of Gilead .

So the sons of Ammon, one of 2 sons of Lot, descendants of Lot, Abraham's nephew, himself a good man, were making a false claim. The territory they wanted had never been theirs. It had been the Amorites when Israel took it from the king of the Amorites, Sihon. The Ammonites had no real claim. But they wanted the land, anyway. Jephthah asked why they had waited 300 years to make this claim and try to take this land they never owned. King Sihon and the Amorites had been conquered just before entering Canaan, about the time Moses died at age 120 and Joshua took over. So from that time to this confrontation with Ammon was 300 years. Jephthah then judged Israel 6 years before dying. This point at 300 past entry into Canaan leaves us with only 56 years till Saul is made king of Israel. Far too much happens for the many accounts given to allow a sequential addition of these years to fit into 56 years.

As we consider how things are drastically out of sequence, we will see that this period, one of extreme chaos most of the time, was never intended as an accounting of time but, rather, a highlighting of the chaos that led to kings being installed in Israel as opposed to judges. God had to protect the survival of His nation and priesthood so that He could bring about the arrival of His son, at the right time, to install a new covenant and give his life as a ransom for mankind. But a king was needed, not because it was a better system but because the people of Israel were continually disobedient and neglectful of Jehovah and His laws. A king could be more forceful in demanding the obedience of people, although at a price.

So things take a big change after Jephthah in Judges 12:7. Three more judges are referred to, but without mentioning Israel serving anyone in particular. Nor is any rest mentioned with these judges any time after them or during their times. Judges does mention Israel serving the Philistines 40 years at Judges 13:1 and then we read about the exploits of Samson and how he judged 20 years. But no rest is mentioned, nor do we have any firm period to anchor this story in. In fact, we do not have any anchor for the 2 stories to follow after this, either.

The story of the tribe of Dan, who steals idols and wealth and a priest from a man and then conquers a seemingly peaceful decent people, rather than a nasty deserving bunch who would be much more trouble if not eliminated. Dan appears as an out of control bunch who have no regard for God and His laws and may have something to do with other prophecies of Dan, indicating Dan's impact of future events. This account, too, takes place in the early days of the judges, and not the time of the judges after Jephthah. So the Bible takes us out of sequence again, even as it does in Revelation.

I will point out that God does introduce a little bit of troublesome, out of sequence events, in order to mix things up a little to confuse, not so much good studious Christians who are willing to put the time and effort into getting the story straight by unscrambling the coded sequence of events, but to confuse God's enemies so that the Bible would be given little attention or concern by the enemies so that we would have it to read and decode. Who could take seriously a book with so much apparent confusion, right?

Next up is the horrible account of a tribe gone totally mad and depraved. The tribe of Benjamin, rather than caring for travelers, called sojourners in some Bible translations, as commanded by Jehovah, Himself, in the law of Moses, ultimately takes out the traveler's wife and rapes her quite brutally by a large group of men so that she dies just as she gets back to her husband. Her husband is outraged, justly so, and cuts her up into 12 pieces to be sent to the 12 tribes of Israel to get their attention, whereby he may demand justice, which God would certainly require of Benjamin. Israel mishandles the situation throughout, but at least manages to punish most of Benjamin. They should have wiped out Benjamin entirely.

When did this take place? Well, Phineas is prominent in this story towards the end of it. Phineas was alive and well during days of Moses while Israel wandered through the desert. So it is probably among the days not long after Joshua and his generation had yet died out. But it is also likely told out of sequence or time context. Its purpose was to show how far gone the entire nation was in various places. Why, what Benjamin did was almost the same as what nearly took place in Sodom and Gomorrah. The law prescribed that if Israel should do as Sodom and Gomorrah and the like did, they should and will be wiped out completely and cease to exist forever with the same basic result that Sodom and Gomorrah experienced, but in a more figurative way. See Deuteronomy 29: 16-29 and 32:15-35. Odd that Benjamin should exactly duplicate the very sin of Sodom.

So as I see it, many things were left out of any time sequence as time was not the focus. Time was considered in other places so as to enable a reliable timeline and chronology. Those places are 1st Kings 6:1 which counts 480 years from the Exodus to the 4th year of Solomon, when construction of the temple in Jerusalem began. This solidly defines a timeline for us between those 2 points in time. We also know the years and points when Moses was born, and when he ran away to Midian after killing an Egyptian at age 40. He was 80 at the Exodus, and 120 when Israel was about to enter the promised land and Moses appointed Joshua and then died.

We also know the years of the reigns of Saul, 40 years, David, 40 years, both of which can be backed out of the 480 years, as well as the 4th year of Solomon just after David. So from the death of Moses and Joshua/Israel entering Canaan to Saul being crowned King, amount to 356 years. This period is firmly fixed and can not be tempered with. In addition, we have a 300 year period defined, sort of, in the days of Jephthah, where a boundary dispute occurred over a land taken by Israel just after entering Canaan from a king.

We can estimate the age of Joshua, which is quite likely near the age of Caleb, which was 78 at the Border of Canaan, being ready to enter the promised land. If we allow 79 for Joshua at that same time, then his death at 110 years of age matched perfectly with the rest of the numbers given to account for exactly 300 years to Jephthah's dispute and beginning of his judging, mentioned previously. We do not know that Joshua was exactly this age but if the 300 years is to be precise, then this, by far, would be the best explanation for how 300 years comes to be. The only other choice is to merely except the 300 without explanation, if you prefer. I prefer reason when it is reasonable and possible.

Ages of Joshua and Caleb
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I need to cover the ages of Joshua and Caleb to show the precise dating sequence obtained by the death of Joshua.

Deuteronomy 2:
13  Now, rise up and you yourselves pass over the torrent Zered; and we crossed over the torrent Zered.
14  And the days in which we came from Kadesh-barnea, until we had crossed over the torrent Zered, were thirty eight years, until the end of all the generation, even the men of war were destroyed from the midst of the camp, as Jehovah swore to them.
15  And the hand of Jehovah was also against them, to destroy them from the midst of the camp, until they were consumed.

This was an important point for it shows that at the end of the 40 years of wandering to kill off the generation who would not fight the Canaanites after they were spied on was 38 years. So the spying of Canaan took place 2 years after the Exodus. Caleb next gives his age at this time.

Judges 14:
6  And the sons of Judah came near to Joshua in Gilgal, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite said to him, You know the word that Jehovah spoke to Moses the man of God as to me and as to you in Kadesh-barnea.
7  I was a son of forty years when Moses the servant of Jehovah sent me from Kadesh-barnea to spy out the land.

10  And now, behold, Jehovah has kept me alive, as He said, these forty five years since Jehovah spoke this word to Moses, when Israel went in the wilderness. And now, behold, today I am a son of eighty five years;

Caleb was 40 at the time of his spying. So he was 38 at the Exodus and 78 upon entering Canaan. He was 85 speaking to Joshua after the wars with the Cannanites had been completed for the time being. 85-78 = 7 years. So Joshua led 7 years of war with the Canaanites at this time, when the tribes were being assigned territory to live.

I next tried assuming a similar number of years of age for Joshua as for Caleb. I picked round numbers for ease of figuring, making Joshua 40 at the Exodus and 80 at his entrance to Canaan. that would make him 2 years older than Caleb at the same times. The total time for when Joshua dies at 110, to Jephthah and the Ammonites ended up 299. So I added one more year to Joshua to arrive at a perfect 300. This made Joshua 3 years older than Caleb and 41 at the Exodus and 81 entering Canaan.

Some might argue that the rest of Joshua's generation had to die out as well but I think this was figured in, in general, with the passing of the death of Joshua. Whether it was or not, Jephthah said it was 300 years to his encounter with Ammon and that will have to do.

But What About 450 Years at Acts 13:20?
And Who Defines the Period of the Judges?
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Wow! You guys know your stuff. Well, those are good questions and not ones that many might even know except the well studied or those trying to discredit God and His Word. So, lets talk about Acts 13:19 first. Here, the Apostle Paul speaks of 450 years of Judges, and who better ought to know than an Apostle, being obviously anointed with the spirit of God, right? But 450 could seem to violate the 480 years mentioned at 1st Kings 6. But we who trust God would never conclude such a thing. We know an explanation must exist to resolve the matter. Notice the entire 8 verses concerning this issue.

Acts 13:

16  So Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand said: "Men of Israel, and you that fear God, listen.

17  The God of this people Israel chose our fathers and made the people great during their stay in the land of Egypt, and with uplifted arm he led them out of it.

18  And for about forty years he bore with them in the wilderness.

19  And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land as an inheritance, for about four hundred and fifty years.

20  And after that he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet.

21  Then they asked for a king; and God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.

22  And when he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king; of whom he testified and said, ‘I have found in David the son of Jesse a man after my heart, who will do all my will.’

23  Of this man’s posterity God has brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, as he promised.

Here is how I see it. This entire speech was about a Savior, thru the line of David. It took 450 years before it was brought about thru David. The Exodus and wandering was for 40 years. Saul ruled for 40 years. There were judges thru Samuel. If we take the 480 year number from the Exodus to the year 4 dedication of the Temple built by Solomon and subtract the 4 years of Solomon, 40 years of David and 40 years of Saul and 40 years of wandering the in desert since the Exodus, we have 124 years to take away from 480. That leaves 356 years of judges. But, Samuel as a judge lasted into Saul's reign for a time and we subtracted that out, right? We do not know how long Samuel survived into Saul's reign but we know Samuel was getting on in years and his sons were corrupt and Israel wanted and got a king in Saul. But Saul went bad and Samuel told Saul that he had been rejected by God. Samuel then dies sometime after.

Now the fulfillment of a Savior was accomplished thru David. So now we put Saul's 40 and the Wandering 40 back in. 356 now becomes 436. We are 14 years short. Whoops! Oh, wait, there is that overlap of Samuel into Saul's reign, right? Could it be 14 years? I'll bet you it is. There is your "for about" "four hundred and fifty years. I believe 450 is the sum of all things before David becomes King and God promises David's line will produce the messiah. There you have it!

As far as I am concerned, the Judges period does not begin until the Exodus. And it ends with kings being installed with Saul. That period is 356 years that enable us to complete a solid unbroken span from Adam to the present, some 6,021 years in 2015, give or take a couple or 3 years at most. But Paul was not speaking precisely as it said "about" 450 years, perhaps summed up as from the Exodus to the end of Samuel or Saul.

From the Exodus, 857 years after the flood, to the finish of Saul's term (40 years), is 436 years. 14 years is fine when speaking in round terms.

The Exodus to Jephthah's 300 Years - Table
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2513 AA  Moses at 80 leads Exodus 857 AF 0 EX -1493 BC   Acts 7:30
2513 AA  Caleb 38 at Exodus 857 AF 0 EX -1493 BC   Josh 14:7-10
2513 AA  Joshua likely 41 at Exodus 857 AF 0 EX -1493 BC   Deut 2:14 
    Moses 82 at spying Kadesh               Deut 2:14
    and 2 yrs after Exodus               Deut 2:14
    Caleb 40 at Spying               Josh 14:7-10
    Joshua probably 43 spying               Josh 14:7-10
    Wandering 40 years in desert                
2553 AA  Joshua takes over Israel 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC   Deut 29:5, 34:1-7
2553 AA  Caleb 78 at entry into Canaan 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC   Deut 2:14, Josh 14
2553 AA  Joshua likely 81 at entry 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC   Deut 2:14, Josh 14
2553 AA  Entry into Canaan to fight 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC   Deut 2:14
2560 AA  Caleb 85 after wars 904 AF 47 EX -1446 BC   Josh 14:10
2560 AA  Wars lasted 7 yrs, after entry 904 AF 47 EX -1446 BC   Josh 14:10
2584 AA  Joshua dies at 110, 24 yrs 928 AF 71 EX -1422 BC   Josh 24:29-31
      about 31 yrs after entry 928 AF 71 EX -1422 BC   Judges 2:8
2592 AA  Israel serves 8 years to Chushan… 936 AF 79 EX -1414 BC   Judges 3:8-9
2632 AA  Othniel/Land 40 years rest, & dies 976 AF 119 EX -1374 BC   Judges 3:11
2640 AA  Israel serves 8 years to Moab/Eglon 984 AF 127 EX -1366 BC   Judges 3:14-15
2720 AA  Ehud/Land 80 yrs rest 1064 AF 207 EX -1286 BC   Judges 3:30-31
    Shamgar Included with Ehud   AF   EX   BC   Judges 3:30-31
2740 AA  Israel serves Sisera/Jabin 20 years 1084 AF 227 EX -1266 BC   Judges 4:3-4
    Deborah/Barak deliver               Judges 4:22-24
2747 AA  Israel serves Midian 7 yrs 1091 AF 234 EX -1259 BC   Judges 6:1
2787 AA  Gideon delivers, 40 years rest 1131 AF 274 EX -1219 BC   Judges 8:28
2790 AA  Israel serves Abimelech 3 yrs 1134 AF 277 EX -1216 BC   Judges 9:22
2813 AA  Tola judges 23 years 1157 AF 300 EX -1193 BC   Judges 9:22
2835 AA  Jair judged 22 yrs & died 1179 AF 322 EX -1171 BC   Judges 10:3-5
2847 AA  Huge Climate Disruption in Tree Rings 1191 AF 334 EX -1159 BC    
2853 AA  2.5 tribes served Amorites 18 yrs 1197 AF 340 EX -1153 BC   Judges 10:8
2853 AA  Jephthah 300 yrs since entry/war 1197 AF 340 EX -1153 BC   Judges 11:26*
2859   Jephthah judges 6 yrs 1203 AF 346 EX -1147 BC   Judges 12:7

I put in the date calculated by Dendro-Chronologists (those who study tree rings for climate patterns and timelines) at 1159 BC to see what was going on at that time. It is interesting that it takes place in the latter part of this chaotic period of the Judges, even as the world seemed plunged into a dark age at from about 1200 BC to 800 BC. I would place that dark age as possibly being more like 1350 to 950 BC. That will have to wait for further articles on secular dates. But 1159 BC stands, as its dating is independent of other methods of relative dating schemes, most relying on a questionable Egyptian Chronology.

Eusebius on Judges period
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As in earlier Bible times and dates, Eusebius does not cite scripture references for his dates and it is clear he is using the Septuagint for  his numbers. Further, he does not use various dating references like "After Adam (AA)" like I do, or After Flood (AF) or from the Exodus (EX). Nor does he cite BC dates. Were he dealing with the Hebrew Bible, it would not be as hard as we would have the same numbers in most circumstances.

The Judges period does not have a complete chronology for an independent accounting of the time. It is only thru backing out the years beginning with Saul becoming king and backing Saul out from year 4 of Solomon, said to be 480 years after the Exodus. Eusebius does not do that. From Moses beginning the 40 years of wandering to Solomon year 4 (480 after EX) Eusebius says 600 years. This contradicts the clear Bible reference of 480 years from those 2 points. Again, he is suing he Greek Bible, a serious error, really. I can't emphasize that enough. He does admit that dates for Samuel are not certain. He also says that about Joshua and Saul but those dates can be calculated.

He does note the 300 years mentioned by Jephthah and he accepts the 480 years. I don't see it. I will note at this time that Eusebius, as far as I know, never obtains a date for the flood and weighs that against the birth of Jesus or his death. We who have arrived at 2017 are now at 6023 AA  from Adam's creation. The sum of all the ages was said to be near to 6000 years. Prophet Zephaniah indicates that it would be just a little bit more than 6000. Eusebius did not have this advantage to calculate.

Eusebius does not count the years of servitude. That they are mentioned was taken by me and others as periods of time to be apart of the chronology. But there might be something said for Eusebius' choice. He seems to give the same dates for the judge as I have. He even has the same age for Joshua.

But there is no real accounting for precise times or dates of Samuel, Eli, Samson, or the Philistines. Samuel annointed Saul. So as I said before, the Judges period can not be accounted for on its own. We depend on backing out certain dates and reigns to arrive a total figure for the Judges period. You can use any starting point you want. Moses death or the Exodus. You can end it at Saul or David. Who you add or leave out will change the total for the period. But Israel entering Canaan under Joshua is a clear point and date. Saul is a clear point and date. Jephthah is a clear date. Beyond that, we can not be sure about the years of dates of Samuel, Samson, Eli, and the Philistines' 20 years.

Eusebius does have some possible merit in the following:

[35] As regards Samuel, since the book [which bears his name] says nothing about his duration, I consider that what the blessed Apostle said concerning Saul should be taken to include both Saul and Samuel. For it appears that Samuel was the leader of the people for many years, while Saul ruled for but two years. The first book of Kings [1 Samuel 13.1] describes it this way: "Saul was the son of a year in his reign; and he ruled over Israel for two years more." Symmachus clarifies [g170] this in his translation: "Saul resembled a one-year-old child in his reigning," which means that at the beginning of his reign Saul was sincere and good, and stayed that way for two years. But then he became corrupted and was rejected by God and was strangled by a demon in punishment. Thus the remaining years have been assigned to Samuel and 40 years is the combined total for Samuel and Saul. It is clear that Saul ruled for this period not solely based on the testimony of the Apostle, but through a careful reading of Scripture.

It is written [in 2 Samuel 2.10] that following Saul's death, "Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, was 40 years old when he began to reign over Israel, and he reigned two years. But the house of Judah followed David." The Ish-bosheth mentioned here must have been born [g171] after Saul became king, because when describing events from the beginning of Saul's reign [1 Samuel 14.49], mention is made of three sons of Saul, but not this one. Thus we believe that [Ish-bosheth] was born late, and that the length of Saul's reign was approximately the same as the age of his son following his death.

Truth1 >> I knew that Samuel was old when he appointed Saul. But after Samuel's death, Saul had the witch of Endor call up Samuel for advice. God saw to it that "Samuel" ( a demon or a messenger of God) told Saul he was about to be killed in battle with the Philistines. There is no sense of how much time elapsed, but what Eusebius suggests has possibilities, though I am not totally persuaded, either. It might be is as far as I can go. Regardless, it does not change the Chronology of the 40 years, all awarded to Saul quite clearly by Paul, himself.

An Uncertain Time in Judges - and why!
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The events in red all happen near to the same time. There are at least 150 years worth of assigned time for a period that needs to fit inside of 56 years to satisfy the 480 years of 1st Kings 6:1.
That being the case, it is pretty clear that, like so many other events in Judges, these are not in sequence and are likely taking place at the same time as judges operating during the 300 years and in other places in Israel. To the point, Israel was a mess and a disaster from the standpoint of God and that does come through loud and clear in the book of Judges.

2847 AA  Huge Climate Disruption in Tree Rings 1191 AF 334 EX -1159 BC    
2853 AA  2.5 tribes served Amorites 18 yrs 1197 AF 340 EX -1153 BC   Judges 10:8
   2853      300 yrs of Judges 300              
2853 AA  Jephthah 300 yrs since entry/war 1197 AF 340 EX -1153 BC   Judges 11:26*
2859   Jephthah judges 6 yrs 1203 AF 346 EX -1147 BC   Judges 12:7
2866   Ibzan judged 7 yrs 1210 AF 353 EX -1140 BC   Judges 12:8
2876   Elon judged 10 yrs 1220 AF 363 EX -1130 BC   Judges 12:11
2884   Abdon judged 8 yrs 1228 AF 371 EX -1122 BC   Judges 12:13-14
2884 AA  31 yrs more total yrs after 300 mark 1228 AF 371 EX -1122 BC    
       331 yrs to the above                
    Israel serves Philistines 40 yrs 40             Judges 13:1
    Samson judged 20 yrs 20             Judges 16:31
    Eli judged 40 yrs, dies 40  near  same         1 Sam 4:18
    Ark in Philistia 7 months    near  same         1 Sam 6:1
    Ark in Kirjath-jearim 20 yrs 20             1 Sam 7:2
    Samuel gathers Israel at Mizpah  same  time           1 Sam 7:5
    Samuel begins judging Israel  same  time           1 Sam 7:6
    Philistine domination ends  same  time           1 Sam 7:13
    Samuel judged all his life               1 Sam 7:15
    Samuel old, had bad sons               1 Sam 8:1,5
   2909 AA Samuel anoints Saul               1 Sam 9:15-17, 10:1-24
2909 AA  Saul begins rule as king 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC   1 Sam 11:15
2909 AA  Judges ENDS 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC    
2909 AA  Saul 40 years    1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC    

My best explanation is that the Philistines were quite the problem for Israel and God's purpose. And while Samson did win his battles with the Philistines, that does not mean their domination of Israel did not continue, despite Samson's judging. It may have ceased but the Bible does not say for sure one way or the other. Fact!  Eli judged 40 years but when and whether in the rest or not, is not ever said. Eli died when the Philistines defeated Israel and the Philistines returned the Ark, and the Ark remained in Kirjath-jearim for 20 years, where Philistine domination is said to end. Samuel begins judging when Philistines are defeated and Domination said to end.

What I do note here in Saul or Samuel/Saul together is that this began in 1097 BC and the late Bronze Age collapse has been suggested to be near to 1177 BC in a somewhat recent book by Eric Cline.

Saul is made king somewhere near 30 years later. This would indicate that Eli judged during the time of Philistine domination.

Did Samson judge in Dan while Eli judged at the Temple/Tent/Tabernacle of God? It is not said. There are 31 years of judges judging mentioned from Jephthah's 6 to Abdon's 8, a total of 31 years, which brings us to within 25 years of  Samuel crowning Saul. Did these judges judge consecutively? Or near the same time, but in different places? It does not say! We are left with possibilities and nothing anywhere near certain. All we know is that Israel got into trouble time and again and had to be baled out all the time.

At this point, I will consider the period from the termination of Abdon's judging at 1228 AF to Saul beginning his reign at 1253 AF. In that time of only 25 years, we have serious things taking place. Right after Abdon's reign concludes, the story of Samson begins with his birth. We know that Samson battles the Philistines. This could possibly be while the Philistines dominate Israel.

But what we can not be certain about is the time of this account. It is quite likely that this story was not about time. It was about the great power of God operating on Samson. We know the Philistines dominated 40 years and that Samson battled them. But Samson also ignored a command of God only to marry a daughter of Israel. While Samson is said to judge for 14 years, we do not know if the Philistines were still considered dominant. I say they might have been. Saul also end up battling the Philistines and losing.

Some will try to answer all the details. I am not that concerned about it. The long term accounting is sound and solid as it was intended to be.

We know that Eli was the High Priest and also served as a judge of Israel. So it is likely as I see it, that there were multiple judges serving in different locales of Israel and only certain ones were listed in consecutive time periods to account for time.

Samuel was raised by Eli and Samuel was a judge while Eli was still alive. Samuel anointed Saul to reign. Samuel dies before Saul does and Samuel also anoints David to take Saul's place, even though Saul is still alive and in power. We are going to terminate the time period after Saul begins ruling, since that is accounted for in the reign of the kings and its date and length is sure.

Eli and his sons were killed by the Philistines in war and the Ark was taken by the Philistines (1 Samuel chaps. 4 & 5). It was returned and a new Priest was sanctified to care for the Ark and keep it in his care. In 1 Samuel 7, Samuel calls Israel to return to the LORD (Jehovah in original Hebrew text), and serve Jehovah with all their heart and seek forgiveness.

Verse 10, Samuel gathers the troops of Israel to Mizpeh and the Philistines attack and Jehovah scares the Philistines with a great thunder and Israel is able to slaughter them and the domination of the Philistines is said to end in verse 13 and in 15 Samuel is said to judge Israel all his life.

I suspect that Samson's actions did not constitute freedom from Philistine domination. Samuel accomplished that.

That Samuel also anointed Saul and David shows that we are dealing with the last times of the judges.

We also know that Saul died in battle with the Philistines and the Ark was captured by the Philistines. So this is all beyond the Judges period we are trying to calculate. Samuel dies in 1 Samuel 25:1. No mention of his age, or length of reign nor how long it was before Saul sought Jehovah and then Samuel through a spirit medium, a violation of God's law. God gives the Medium a vision of Samuel, carrying the message of God. Saul will die. We do not know the length of time to this point. We we not intended to know. Time was not the concern here. If it were, God would have given us that time. That He withheld it is evidence that this period of judging was taking place along with other judges and places.

We have 25 years to spend, up to Saul becoming king thru Samuel's anointing. The Ark was in place at Kirjath-Jearim for 20 years with Eleazar after being returned to Israel. But as Samuel got old, Israel asked for a king and got it.

We have the Philistine domination and Samson's heroics, all likely taking place during the 331 years we have accounted for. We know Eli had 2 wicked sons old enough to serve as priests and disrespect God's temple and services. Samuel is only a boy at this time. I suspect most of this time may be covered by the 25 years that is unaccounted for, when we take the 480 years from the Exodus to Year 4 of Solomon, at the dedication of the temple, and subtract the 331 years accounted for.

While a Judge type system is a good one for those obedient to God and somewhat capable of behaving and being responsible to God, for those who do not obey by not aggressively wiping out the Canaanites as Israel grew, and not inter-marrying with the Canaanites, such as Samson did, and not taking up the gods and religion of the Canaanites, likely makes it necessary for God to create a King type system/government, a more authoritarian top-down, more-controlling, type of government rather than the tribal, less-controlled, less-regulated, more individually-empowered and power-shared-between-tribes, type government which would prevent more abuses of power and taxes.

But a king/monarch type government was probably better suited toward national survival against continually battling nations without as much help from God due to Israel rejecting Him more often than not. People are like sheep and they prefer a strong leader to boss them and dominate them and tell them what to do. So be it for lazy people, spiritually speaking. A king they will have! But it was their fault that they even needed a king.

I must point out here that the decline and fall of Bronze Age was going on at this time and swept over a large region affecting the Mediterranean and Mid East. In it, National kings were the fad now as never before. It was also at this time that people in outlying areas a ways from a city, moved into cities with walls, in a much bigger way. The rurals were abandoned for security, I assume. It is possible it was encouraged by the king and his supporters to effect more control over the population as well. But the archaeological record clearly shows a change near this time.

As well, warfare was dramatically changed. Chariots had become largely obsolete as antidotes were found to defeat chariots and make them a liability for the most part. Seeing this, Jehovah likely decided Israel might be best served, due to their lack of obedience and diligence, to become as the rest of the nations had, with a king and city walls, and standing armies maintained by taxes.

Kings would keep a standing army, at least in reserve, to be called up upon command or seasonally. This would ensure the continuation of Israel long enough to get them to last until the Messiah should come.

So there we have tumultuous time period of the kings. Israel did not want to be grown adults who handle their own affairs diligently and cooperatively. They like authoritarian governments and standing armies to do their dirty work for them . . . for a price, of course. There is always a price, my friends.

The book of Judges need not make us lose faith. Its primary purpose was not to give a good and precise accounting of time, in every detail, though a good accounting is achieved, save for this 1 small period of time, as a secondary function of scripture.. It was written to show us why Israel and later Judah, resorted to kings and why God went along with it at the proper time. First to show that Israel was not capable of keeping a good shared system of governing by giving them a chance to try it. Further, to show how quickly people forget their God. Just one generation is all it takes for things to dissolve. Something for the so called "Baby Boomers" generation of the USA to consider. Third, that lazy people are their own worst enemies in not adequately involving themselves in their own self rule and carefully passing on important information to their kids so that a legacy can be maintained from one generation to another.

Israel had the best chances of any nation or people on earth. God was constantly giving them help and they would drop the ball every time. For it is inevitable from the fall of Adam onward, that mankind was doomed, due to this inherited flaw passed on by Adam in the Garden of Eden. Violating even the smallest command of God, such as eating a piece of fruit from a tree forbidden to them, would ultimately plunge humanity into chaos which would eventually end in a complete breakdown and total moral madness as man would wipe out most of his fellow human beings from the earth in order to have everything for just himself and his own few companions in conspiracy. Total absolute selfishness on a grand scale, almost beyond contemplation, and with complete and absolute disregard for God and other people.

If you doubt all this, just wait and little longer and you shall have your answer, for sure.

I will state here that as well, leaving a slight gap in the Judges period was likely something argued for by Satan, when negotiations with God on terms, at the beginning. The "gap" is revealed in the 480 year check and balance accounting that the Bible was careful to keep. The gap addresses the flow of time. It merely does not address some specifics as to how exactly they fit together in that small period of time. And nothing depends on know that much detail. But I am sure the devil made argument for it, thinking some would lose faith or use to to discredit the Bible, which it does not. In many respects, I think the big long-term flow of time is what God's objective was. Through it, the approximate 6000 year "day" would be measured as a good indicator that we living in those last times now.

Key Date, Solomon's Temple, 480 years
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Here is where Eusebius shines. He has a very detail chronology of Tyre/Sidon/Phoenicia, that was open to the public in its day, and our day, too. All the facts and detail of their relationship with Israel, Solomon, and the Temple that Tyre and Hiram/Hirom helped build.

[36] The evidence of the Phoenicians about the temple at Jerusalem, from Josephus

  Now, that this may not depend on my bare word, I will produce for a witness Dius, one that is believed to have written the Phoenician History after an accurate manner. This Dius, therefore, writes thus, in his Histories of the Phoenicians:
Upon the death of Abibalus, his son Hirom took the kingdom. This king raised banks at the eastern parts of the city, and enlarged it [g175]; he also joined the temple of Jupiter Olympius (Aramazd), which stood before in an island by itself, to the city, by raising a causeway between them, and adorned that temple with donations of gold. He moreover went up to Libanus, and had timber cut down for the building of temples.

They say further, that Solomon, when he was king of Jerusalem, sent problems to Hirom to be solved, and desired he would send others back for him to solve, and that he who could not solve the problems proposed to him should pay money to him that solved them. And when Hirom had agreed to the proposals, but was not able to solve the problems, he was obliged to pay a great deal of money, as a penalty for the same [g176]. As also they relate, that one Abdemon, a man of Tyre, did solve the problems, and proposed others which Solomon could not solve, upon which he was obliged to repay a great deal of money to Hirom.

[37] These things are attested to by Dius, and confirm what we have said upon the same subjects before. And now I shall add Menander the Ephesian, as an additional witness. This Menander wrote the Acts that were done both by the Greeks and Barbarians, under every one of the Tyrian kings, and had taken much pains to learn their history out of their own records. Now when he was writing about those kings that had reigned at Tyre, he came to Hirom, and says thus

Upon the death of Abibalus, his son Hirom took the kingdom; he lived fifty-three years [g177], and reigned thirty-four.

He raised a bank on that called the Broad Place, and dedicated that golden pillar which is in Jupiter's (Aramazd's) temple; he also went and cut down timber from the mountain called Libanus, and got timber of cedar for the roofs of the temples. He also pulled down the old temples, and built new ones; besides this, he consecrated the temples of Hercules and of Astarte.

He first built Hercules's temple in the month Peritus, and that of Astarte when he made his expedition against the Tityans, who would not pay him their tribute; and when he had subdued them to himself [g178], he returned home. Under this king there was a younger son of Abdemon, who mastered the problems which Solomon, king of Jerusalem, had recommended to be solved. Now the time from this king to the building of Carthage is thus calculated: 

Upon the death of Hirom, Baleazarus his son took the kingdom; he lived forty-three years, and reigned seven years:

*after him succeeded his son Abdastartus; he lived twenty-nine years, and reigned nine years. Now four sons of his nurse plotted against him and slew him, the eldest of whom reigned [twelve years]:

*after them [g179] came Astartus, the son of Deleastartus; he lived fifty-four years, and reigned twelve years:

*after him came his brother Aserymus; he lived fifty-four years, and reigned nine years:

*he was slain by his brother Pheles, who took the kingdom and reigned but eight months, though he lived fifty years:

*he was slain by Ithobalus, the priest of Astarte, who reigned thirty-two years, and lived sixty-eight years:

*he was succeeded by his son Badezorus, who lived forty-five years, and reigned six years:

*he was succeeded by Matgenus his son; he lived thirty-two years [g180], and reigned nine years:

*Pygmalion succeeded him;  he lived fifty-six years, and reigned forty-seven years.

But there was another passion, a philosophic inclination [g174] of theirs, which cemented the friendship that was betwixt them; for they sent mutual problems to one another, with a desire to have them unriddled by each other; wherein Solomon was superior to Hirom, as he was wiser than him in other respects: and many of the epistles that passed between them are still preserved among the Tyrians. Now, that this may not depend on my bare word, I will produce for a witness Dius, one that is believed to have written the Phoenician History after an accurate manner. This Dius, therefore, writes thus, in his Histories of the Phoenicians:

Upon the death of Abibalus, his son Hirom took the kingdom. This king raised banks at the eastern parts of the city, and enlarged it [g175]; he also joined the temple of Jupiter Olympius (Aramazd), which stood before in an island by itself, to the city, by raising a causeway between them, and adorned that temple with donations of gold. He moreover went up to Libanus, and had timber cut down for the building of temples.

Now in the seventh year of his reign, his sister fled away from him, and built the city Carthage in Libya. So the whole time from the reign of Hirom, till the building of Carthage, amounts to the sum of one hundred fifty-five years and eight months. Since then the temple was built at Jerusalem in the twelfth year of the reign of Hirom, there were from the building of the temple, until the building of Carthage, one hundred forty-three years and eight months.

Wherefore, what occasion is there for alleging any more testimonies out of the Phoenician histories [on the behalf of our nation], since what I have said is so thoroughly confirmed already? and to be sure our ancestors came into this country long before the building of the temple [g181]; for it was not till we had gotten possession of the whole land by war that we built our temple. And this is the point that I have clearly proved out of our sacred writings in my Antiquities.

This is Josephus' account.

[38] For this Chronology, the following table shows [the rulers and their reigns] from the building of the temple in the fourth year of Solomon to its destruction by the Babylonians 432 years later. Here are the figures:

1. Solomon, 37 years, including the additional three years

2. Rehoboam, 16 years

3. Abijam, 3 years

4. Asa, 41 years

5. Jehoshaphat, 25 years

6. Jehoram, 8 years

7. Ahaziah, 1 year

8. Athaliah, his mother, 7 years

9. Jehoash, 40 years [g182]

10. Amaziah, 28 years

11. Uzziah, 52 years. In his reign the Greeks established the first Olympic games [776 B.C.].

12. Jotham, 16 years

13. Ahaz, 16 years

14. Hezekiah, 29 years

15. Manasseh, 55 years

16. Amon, 2 years

17. Josiah, 31 years

18. Jehoahaz, 3 months

19. Jehoiakim, 11 years

20. Jehoiachin, his son, also called Jekhoniah, 3 months

21. Mattaniah, also called Zedekiah, 11 years  

This makes a total of 432 years.  <<< End of Eusebius account

Truth1 >> Eusebius goes on to add chronologies of Persia, the Medes, and of the Greeks in Alexandria. He silences any critics for thoroughness so as to give evidence of great care and diligence in trying to establish a credible and thorough accounting of time from like 4 or 5 witnesses (historians, national chronographers/record keepers). I am going to put these accounts in my Chronology Articles to demonstrate that Bible Chronology is not an isolated anomalous one, but one testified by surrounding empires as well. This is why I have such admiration for Eusebius.

I was not aware of these reinforcing chronologies as applied to Bible Chronology. Eusbeius' labor pays off 1700 years later. I have the highest regard for this sort of custodian of learning and record keeping.

I note that academia, ever the critic and skeptic of Bible Chronology is also either unware of Eusebius application of other record, though they do know of these ancient national records, but maybe not Eusebius application of these to Bible dating. But it is clear that if the Bible is off slightly (which I do not believe) a few years, that is all it is and the accounts have a very high probabilty of credibilty and accuaracy. No mere myths and legends! Real history!

So that all said, Year 4 of Solomon and his existence and deeds, most particularly the Temple being built, were, one and all, not done in isolation or vacuum.  They are attested to and beyond dispute. You can quibble over a few years, if any. So when 480 years is offered as a check and balance between the Exodus, also huge, and the Temple Dedication, we can be damned certain of the matter.

As well, the changes that came about do fit perfectly with the twilight of the Bronze Age and its demise. I am working on an article on the Bronze Age but can offer no exact expectations for completion. Some of it is already published by me in my Chronology Articles. But far more to come. July 27, 2017.

One More Thought
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Amos 9:
5  And the Lord Jehovah of hosts is He who touches the earth so that it melts, and all dwelling in it shall mourn. And all of it will rise up like the Nile , and sink down like the Nile of Egypt.
6  It is He who builds His staircase in the heavens, and He has founded His binding heavens on the earth; He who calls for the seawater and pours them out on the face of the earth, Jehovah is His name.
7  Are you not like the sons of the Ethiopians to Me, O sons of Israel? declares Jehovah. Have I not brought Israel up out of the land of Egypt, and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?

God not only brought up Israel from Egypt, but also the Philistines from Caphtor, better known today as Crete and Syrians from Kir. God is the God of all the earth and all the universe. And not only does He control the paths and destinies of all nations, but even as He has judged these other nations on behalf of Israel, He can also judge Israel. But Israel was too dull in its senses to discern this. This reinforces much of the theme of the book of Judges. But I feel there is another point as well.

It was God's purpose from the beginning of time to accomplish salvation for any and every man of any race or nation who should want it, accepting it on God's terms, of course. So while other nations were adversely affected as God chose to protect His chosen (because of a promise to Abraham) nation (and chosen only for a time) till the Kingdom of God and the fulfillment of promises in God's son being offered in sacrifice be fulfilled, days would come when Israel would no longer enjoy any advantages or protections and nations would no longer be slighted in behalf of Israel. God is the God of all nations. And it is His desire to spare as many as possible in every nation through the ransom sacrifice of His son, if they accept God's terms of surrender, so to speak. God gives us lots of good reason, in hindsight, to realize that He as been right all along and Satan was wrong.

So we want to be careful in thinking that "Israel" has always been and will always be God's chosen and protected people or that Philistines or other, at times, nuisance peoples and nations shall always be a nuisance. For God will take from every nation a people for His name, as first fruits of the harvest of mankind to live and rule with God's son in heaven over the rest of mankind living under God on earth. These in heaven, the Real Temple God and New Jerusalem, the Bride of Christ, so to speak, will shepherd mankind and reside with mankind, so to speak. The kingdom of God will finally come to the earth God's will, will be done on the earth, even as it is in heaven.

So don't look down too much on those foreign peoples and nations. For out of those will be some who serve God in His heavenly temple along with His son to fulfill God's many purposes. Just a thought!

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The Chronology of the Judges Period - This period is confusing but it is very understandable once you know the secrets. I got'em!
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