Created 2000 AD             updated Jan. 4, 2015

An Overview of Biblical Chronology

From Adam's Creation to the Flood
From the Flood to the Exodus
Sojourn in Egypt
From the Kings to Jerusalem's Fall
Judean Kings Chronology List
The Co-Regency & Ezekiel's Prophecy
70 or 50 Years of Desolation?
Foreign Connections to 70 AD Fall of Jerusalem
My Chronology vs Others (Beware!)  Aug 8, 2013
Some Comparison Examples   Jan 4 2015

Related Articles

My Method in Figuring Chronology

The Bible gives us enough specific dates to construct a complete time line beginning with the creation of Adam up to the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and 20 years after the resettlement and repatriation of Jerusalem. We are rather fortunate that the Bible gives us a precise accounting of the dates of the destruction and even more fortunate that the Babylonians were meticulous keepers of astronomical observations that went with their dating so that we can arrive at a precise and verifiable time for the destruction of Jerusalem and of its repatriation. Beyond this point, we have to rely on secular dating leading up to Christ's birth and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. It was the Bible itself that began to use secular kings and events to date things after God had Babylon take the Jews away and sack Jerusalem. Using secular dating, we can calculate back to the time of Jerusalem's destruction by Babylon to get a feel for how long time has progressed from our present time to the birth of Adam.

My primary goal with this article is to address mostly basic references that enable a continuous chronology. I have created other pages to deal with more specifics and other date worthy events. They are all linked at the end of this article.

Now there are a few different accountings of the Bible's chronological time line by various religious sources and secular ones, too. Some are inaccurate by my accounting, however well intentioned their authors might have been. I am supplying the scriptures and details as to how I arrive at mine. That way if there is a dispute, we can see which scriptures are the cause of confusion. Knowing when the Bible implies that an event happened may help give us clues in searching for connections with archaeological evidence. And chronology will have to be addressed when making this connection so we need the Bible's framework. As well, chronology is an important part of prophecy and we need to have a chronology to see if we are on the right track. This is likely why God left us enough info in the Bible to establish a reasonable chronology.

One of the most notable chronologies and chronologists of all time is the Anglican Archbishop James Ussher of Ireland, 1581-1656. He set the creation of the world at 4004 BC. While I do not subscribe to the "Young Earth" chronology, his date would reflect the creation of Adam. Sir Isaac Newton was also a big Chronologist and Biblical scholar. The work most respected by me since then is by Dr. Floyd Nolen Jones - The Chronology of the Old Testament, who runs his own ministry as well. Jones does a better job (but not much better) than Ussher. Jones highly respects Ussher and rightly so, for his original great work. Jones does improve/refine it and addresses others who have offered their various opinions of matters of Bible chronology. So I use and compare Jones' work with my own so that one can determine who is right or not. Jones and I only vary by a couple years or so in some places, which is not enough to really change anything.

Let me state that Jones' book is excellent and very affordable for $16 to $20 in stores and on the net. No one should really be without it as he gives many places much more detail than I do. I just pick the right stuff and why, without as much of a broad range of opinions. If you were to get a reproduction of Ussher's work, you would pay $40 to $60 and Jones covers Ussher throughout his book.

My dates will possibly be off by 1 to 2 years, particularly around the time of the kings as I grant full years when it is said something happened in the ? year of such and such a king. I assume that some reigns start early in the year and some start late in the year and that over time, they even out for the most part. And some dates are given by chronologists as 2 years such as 587/6 BC. Take your pick. So the years could be off by as much as 2 years. This will not be significant in archaeological or Biblical terms. Exact dates are an elusive pursuit and always subject to change. I include BC dates in some tables before I actually explain how I arrived at those dates. After you come across the explanation, you can go back and double check them if you like.

I use BC for what scholars typically use for B.C.E. (before common era). They hate Christianity having any influence, though they do not object to other religious influences from Greeks, Romans, or others, as reflected in the names of the days of the week, or months of the year or other such matters. So I use BC (Before Christ). I use AD instead of C.E. (Common era). AD is from Latin (anno domini)(or close to that) meaning after the dominion or birth of Christ. Think of it as After Christ. Isaac Newton actually uses AC instead of AD. I used to use AC in opposition to CE (Common Era) but since AD is well established and recognized, it seemed the most reasonable course to me to use. The rest of the time periods are noted below.

Also used in this article are commentaries from the Dead Sea Scrolls, derived from Geza Vermes' book: The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. I quote page numbers from his book as well as scroll info. I will show it as DSS p 1, meaning Dead Sea Scrolls page 1.

From Adam's Creation to the Flood.
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I use the following abbreviations as dating descriptions:

AA = years After Adam            Some refer to this as AM which came from Latin language and I won't bother with it. I speak English.

BF = years Before the Flood

AF = years After the Flood

EX = from the Exodus

BC = Before Christ

AD = After Christ                    Again, from Latin but since everyone knows about it, I'll keep it.

Now some secular sources do not like to use the BC and AD initials. They feel it is injecting religion into something scholarly or scientific. I think they are full of prejudice towards Christianity. Like it or not, Christianity had a significant influence on the world due much to its influence on the Roman Empire. For those who protest its remaining influence on our dating system, why do they not also object to days of the week being named after some of the Germanic/Nordic gods or names of the months after Roman ones. They don't mind these religious influences, do they? So there would appear to be a particular bias against Christianity for why else should she be singled out for her "influence?" So I continue to use BC and AD. In the Bible we are given the age of the father at the birth of each individual.  I also show the age of death for each person. For the birth and death of each individual I show the years starting from Adam's birth (AA) and the years it occurred before the flood (BF). This was to help put everything in perspective. I also chose to fill in a few details of times and ages, here and there, for those with an interest in the Bible's details.
The following lineage & ages are found in Genesis 5:3-31.

0 AA  Adam  born 0  -1656 BF      -4006 BC 
130 AA  Seth  born 130 of Adam  -1526 BF      -3876 BC 
235 AA  Enosh  born 105 of Seth  -1421 BF      -3771 BC 
325 AA  Kenan  born 90 of Enosh  -1331 BF      -3681 BC 
395 AA  Mahalalel  born 70 of Kenan  -1261 BF      -3611 BC 
460 AA  Jared  born 65 of Mahalalel  -1196 BF      -3546 BC 
622 AA  Enoch  born 162 of Jared  -1034 BF      -3384 BC 
687 AA  Methuselah  born 65 of Enoch  -969 BF      -3319 BC 
874 AA  Lamech  born 187 of Methuselah  -782 BF      -3132 BC 
930 AA  Adam  died at 930  -726 BF      -3076 BC 
987 AA  Enoch  died at 365  -669 BF      -3019 BC 
1042 AA  Seth  died at 912  -614 BF      -2964 BC 
1056 AA  Noah  born 182 of Lamech  -600 BF      -2950 BC 
1140 AA  Enosh  died at 905  -516 BF      -2866 BC 
1235 AA  Kenan  died at 910  -421 BF      -2771 BC 
1290 AA  Mahalalel  died at 895  -366 BF      -2716 BC 
1422 AA  Jared  died at 962  -234 BF      -2584 BC 
1556 AA  Japheth  born 500 of Noah  -100 BF      -2450 BC 
1558 AA  Shem  born 502 of Noah  -98 BF      -2448 BC 
1651 AA  Lamech  died at 777  -5 BF      -2355 BC 
1656 AA  Methuselah  died at 969  0 BF      -2350 BC 
1558 AA  Shem born 502 of Noah -98 BF     -2448 BC
1656 AA  Flood Flood Begins  0       -2350 BC
1657 AA Flood waters dried up 1 AF     -2349 BC
1658 AA  Arpachshad born 100 of Shem 2 AF     -2348 BC

Dendrochronological (tree-ring) records indicate a massive climatic disturbance dated 2354 BC - 2345 BC.

I do not have details that would explain what sorts of trees have a complete unbroken chain of tree rings or whether they depend on several different tree line constructions. But there is no doubt that the aftereffects of the flood on the climate lingered, as waters continued to recede, leading to the drying up, over time, of the Mesopotamian plains, messing with their irrigation system of farming. This 9 year period only reflects the extremes of the cold, which are also reflected in the frozen Arctic regions where frozen megafauna (very large versions of different species, which all became extinct) of the so-called Ice Age. The cooling was no doubt world-wide as is reflected in the tree ring record.

Of course, 2354 BC would have to represent the beginning of the flood, which is in variance with my Bible date by 5 years. It does remain that I could yet have errors in my figures and choices for Bible dates or it may reflect a tree-ring record with gaps that may cause it to be off by 5 years. But I suspect it is not a coincidence that this climate cooling event happens at the same time as the flood appears to have happened.

Notes on Bible dates from Adam to the Flood

James Ussher, Floyd Nolen Jones, and I, are all in agreement here with this time period and AA numbers. We differ on the BF and BC dates by 2 years, me being 2 years further back on BC dates because I allow a full 480 years from the Exodus to the 4th year of Solomon when the Temple was inaugurated; and a full 1656 years added backwards as well. I have supplied the deaths as well as births so that I have a few more entries in my list than Jones has in his book. Only Adam, Seth, and Enoch died before Noah was born. But we are all in agreement about there being 1656 years to the flood.

The Flood starts in 1656 AA: 0 BF: -2350 BC. Note the advantage of my system, unintended, that the Flood happens at a nice round number. Ain't it great?

There was a total of 1056 years to Noah's birth. Genesis 7:6 states that Noah was 600 (he had started his 600th year) when the earth was flooded. That gives us 600 + 1056 = 1656 years from Adam to the flood. Shem, a son of Noah, was born before the flood according to Genesis 11:10.

There it tells us that at age 100, just 2 years after the flood began, Shem gave birth to his first son, Arpachshad. This means that Shem was born 98 BF, when Noah was 502. It was through Shem that Abraham and Israel descended, and eventually, the Messiah, Jesus, himself. That is why Shem is the particularly relevant son of Noah. As an interesting little piece of trivia, it could be noted that Methuselah lived the longest of anyone at 969 years. And he died the same year the flood happened. It could be possible that it was the flood that ended his life. But then again, he could have died months before the flood actually hit. Tradition says he died a little before the flood actually happened.

Shem is born in 502 of Noah. That's 1558 AA, 98 BF. Shem died at age 600. That's 502 AF and 1848 BC. I will point out that it was a year before the waters receded and the family left the ark. I use a zero at the year of the flood, for the sake of being able to revise dates automatically in MS Excel. It is still 1656 years After Adam.

Genesis 5:32, Noah gave birth to Shem, Ham, and Japheth. The 1st born would be 100 at the flood. Japheth appears to be indicated as the 1st born in Genesis 10:21. It may also be possible, though not certain, that Shem was the youngest. That would mean that there was no more than 2 years from the birth of the first to the last of the 3 sons.

Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) p 461 "Genensis Commentaries, scroll 4Q252 lists Noah as having received the message of the flood from God in the 480th year of Noah's life. This would mean their understanding of God saying there were 120 years left would apply to how long before the flood would happen. Many have thought this way.

In Eusebius' Chronicle, regarding the difference between the Hebrew accounting of years (g123-125) and the Greek Septuagint's account of those years, show both add up to 1656 years in total.  Jared received 100 years more in the Hebrew Bible and 100 years less for Jared in the Greek Bible. Eusebisu faover the Greek version. I do not agree with this. I'll get to it. Eusebius then says "[We might suggest] the possibility that the descendants [g124] lived longer than their ancestors."

I completely disagree with this. You will note that with the exception of Jared on, the life spans after the flood, consistently get shorter with each generation. Eusebius then speculates: "we suspect that this was something which the Jews did. They made bold to shorten the time before the fathering of children to encourage early marriages. For if these ancestors lived such long lives, marrying early and fathering children early [g125] as their version clearly states, who would not want to emulate them by marrying early? "

It is clear that Eusebius and probably most Christians of the time, were so used to being persecuted by the Jews throughout the empire and beyond, that, added to the fact that Jews were rejected and thrown out of Jerusalem and consider the murderer of Jesus, that they thought very poorly the Jews and figured they were the guilty party for the 100 years going to Jared instead of the earlier forefathers.

Christian writings clearly record the many things Jews did in corrupting their own Bible. But though the Jews were tormentor of Christians at that time, it has nothing to do with this change. That the forefathers lived longer is beyond any dispute. My judgment is for the Jews. As well, the Hebrew Bible was the official text of God and His priestly Bureaucracy, which continued till the day that Jesus ascended to Heaven at Pentecoste, and validated the new Covenent.

Further, there are numerous inconsistencies in the Old Testament in the Greek versions. It did not have the same blessing and protection that the Hebrew version did and there were evolving changes in the Greek over time, trying to make the Greek text conform more to the original Hebrew rather than typical Greek conventions in language. I do suspect the Jews might have had some influence on the move to a more Hebraized Greek text.

The original form appears to have been much more loyal to Greek conventions. the evolvement from Greek style to Hebrew style it quite evident in the comparative versions of Greek that Origen of Alexander recorded.

In my article on the Greek being the authorized and most utilized version by early Christians, I have 2 book recommendations that on the Greek Septuagint, one of which included some samples of Origen's work on comparative texts.

To repeat, the total of each account is the same and 1656 years, so that it does not affect anything after this time. However, we do owe a debt of gratitude to Eusebius for revealing his ideas so that we need not wonder who or why they had the preference they did. Candor and transparency are essential to credibility and Eusebius enables that.

From the Flood to the Exodus
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We will use the flood as the 0 starting point. The waters receded after a year. It could also be that the first year after the flood was considered year 1 by the Bible author. But since the flood was about a year from start to when Noah and his family left the ark, they may not have even counted it. So I elected to use 0 for the year of the flood's duration. If I am right, then Noah, who died at age 950, did not die 350 years after the waters receded but 349 years after the waters receded. He lived for 350 years after the flood began - not ended. Either way, it only costs us a year and is not important.

Now in Genesis 10:25 we are informed that in the days of Shem's descendant, Peleg, the earth was divided. As soon as chapter 10 finishes the lineage of Shem, it goes on to explain more about the earth being "divided" in chapter 11. When it says the earth was divided, it meant that the languages were divided (confused/changed) so that they would not continue to congregate in one area but would spread out over the earth. Some suggest that the earth literally split up into the continents of today. They might do well to look up the original Hebrew words to get a more correct translation. Giving attention to the context helps, too. But this split of the languages was said to happen in the days of Peleg. So that could be anything from 101 AF to 340 AF. Anyway, the following are the descendants of Shem and their births and ages are found in Genesis 11:10-27.

1558 AA  Shem born 502 of Noah -98 BF     -2448 BC
1656 AA  Flood Flood Begins    -2350 BC 0       -2350 BC
1657 AA Flood waters gone 1 yr after 1 AF     -2349 BC
1658 AA  Arpachshad born 100 of Shem 2 AF     -2348 BC
1658 AA  Arpachshad born 2 years after flood 2 AF     -2348 BC
1693 AA  Shelah born 35 of Arpachshad 37 AF     -2313 BC
1723 AA  Eber born 30 of Shelah 67 AF     -2283 BC
1757 AA  Peleg born 34 of Eber 101 AF     -2249 BC
1787 AA  Reu born 30 of Peleg 131 AF     -2219 BC
1819 AA  Serug born 32 of Reu 163 AF     -2187 BC
1849 AA  Nahor born 30 of Serug 193 AF     -2157 BC
1878 AA  Terah born 29 of Nahor 222 AF     -2128 BC
2008 AA  Abraham born 130 of Terah 352 AF     -1998 BC
2083 AA  Terah dies at 205 427 AF     -1923 BC
2083 AA  Abraham at 75 Sojourns 427 AF     -1923 BC
2108 AA  Isaac born 100 of Abraham 452 AF     -1898 BC
2168 AA  Jacob born 60 of Isaac 512 AF     -1838 BC
2255 AA  Levi born 87 of Jacob 599 AF     -1751 BC
2256 AA  Judah born 88 of Jacob 600 AF     -1750 BC
2259 AA  Joseph born 91 of Jacob 603 AF     -1747 BC
2285 AA  Kohath* born 30 of Levi * 629 AF      -1721 BC
2296 AA Famine Begins 2 before Jacob arrival 640 AF     1710 BC
2298 AA  Jacob comes to Egypt at 130 642 AF     -1708 BC
2298 AA  Joseph is 39 642 AF     -1708 BC
2298 AA  Egyptian Sojourn begins 215 642 AF     -1708 BC
2313 AA  Amram* born 28 of Kohath * 657 AF      -1693 BC
2369 AA  Joseph dies at 110 713 AF     -1637 BC
2378 AA  Climate Disaster   Mt. Thera Erupts #2 722 AF     -1628 BC
2392 AA  Levi dies at 137 736 AF     -1614 BC
2433 AA  Moses born (120) of Amram * 777 AF     -1573 BC
2450 AA Amram* dies at 137, 152 in exile * 794 AF     -1556 BC
2473 AA  Moses at 40 flees to Midian 817 AF     -1533 BC
2513 AA  Moses at 80 leads Exodus 857 AF 0/1 EX -1493 BC
2553 AA  Moses at 120 dies 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC
2553 AA  Joshua  takes over Israel 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC
2553 AA  Judges BEGINS 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC

#2   footnote link to Mt. Thera Eruption and Climate disturbance dated 1628 BC.

* Note that Kohath and Amram had their births estimated by average as they do not appear in the Bible. But of interesting note, one of the fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls, dubbed "The Testament of Amram, found in cave 4 at Qumran, scroll 4Q543-8, relates that *Amram died at age 137, in agreement with the Bible, but adds that it was also 152 years of exile in Egypt. Assuming the Arrival of Jacob begins their exile at 642 AF, + 152 = 794 AF. If we back out 137 from 794 AF, we get 657 AF as the birth of *Amram, considerably earlier than my averaged date of 720 AF. Its a 63 year difference. Given that Moses was born at 777 AF, then he was 17 and in the house of Pharaoh when Amram died. *Amram was 120 at the birth of Moses and even younger for Aaron and Miriam. While many might not be comfortable with a son in such old age, It is not beyond the bounds of possibility. There were not that many years between Aaron, Miriam and Moses. Miriam herself was an unmarried girl when Moses was born. We do not know how reliable this piece of scroll is but it is interesting that such a figure is related and how it might have gotten passed down, if it was not made up.

Amram having his children in his very old age could have been a miracle as it was with Abraham. Of it could have been that he married very late or married and took another wife or was widowed and remarried. But from a Bible standpoint, none of these is impossible. The life spans overlap enough to allow it. But with Amram begetting kids so late in life, allows the previous two, Kohath and Levi to have married much earlier, which seems more reasonable. It is one thing to accept that one man might, for whatever the reason, not begin having children till late, but more difficult to believe that all 3 male descendants should all wait so long to start fathering kids.

I assumed an age of 30 as a potential age for Levi to start fathering. That would make Kohath as young as 28 upon his fathering. Both could have begun earlier with other kids and Levi could have had Kohath later in his life, though not too much later. As well, this evidence from the Dead Sea Scrolls would absolutely necessitate that Israel's sojourn in Egypt could only have been as Paul allows, of a mere 215 years in Egypt and the rest being a wandering in Canaan before that, upon leaving Haran when Terah died. Some prefer 400 or 430 in Egypt but it would contradict Paul, the Holy Spirit and the Dead Sea Scroll of Amram.

Eusebius says:

7. Serug fathered Nahor when he was 130 years of age. He lived an additional 100 years, until the 21th year of Terah.

>>Serug was 30 when Nahor was born. Eusebius assumed Terah was the 1st born, but it was Nahor, given that Terah was 205 when he died, not allowing for Abraham to be 75 at that time and living a full 175 in all. Eusebius makes Serug 100 years older than he was.<<

8. Nahor fathered Terah when he was 79 years of age. He lived an additional 69 years, until the 69th year of Terah.

>>Nahor was only 29 when Terah was born. Above says 79. That is 50 years off and Terah is only allotted 145 years rather than 205. 60 years off. Again, Esebius prefers the Samaritans and Greeks to Hebrew. Its not justified. And the ages do not come out right.<<

9. Terah fathered Abraham when he was 70 years of age. He lived an additional 75 years, until the 75th year of Abraham.

>>Terah was 130 when Abraham was born. 205 when he dies and Abraham was 75 at that time. Follow it back wards and you can figure the real years.<<

10. Year one of Abraham. From the flood to the first year [g146] of Abraham totals 942 years, the same figure that the Septuagint provides. Our [Septuagint] text and this Samaritan Hebrew text are in harmony regarding the number of years each man lived prior to fathering a son. They [both] diverge from the Jewish Hebrew version by 650 years, because, according to the latter, 292 years transpired from the flood until the first year of Abraham. The most ancient Hebrew text, which has been preserved in the Samaritan version, agrees with the Septuagint translation that these men from [the time of the] flood until [the time of] Abraham fathered sons when they were at least a hundred years of age. Then who would suggest that their descendants, who lived longer, had fathered children any sooner than [g147] the period provided in the Septuagint? Consequently, the rational conclusion is that the [figures provided in the] Jewish version from Adam to Abraham are in error, except for the three generations beginning with Jared, and that the Samaritan version is also in error, but only from Adam to the flood, because from the flood to Abraham [the Samaritan version] is in agreement with the Septuagint translation. <<<End of quote

Truth1>>>  Again, Eusebius is enamored of the Greek text and its harmonization with the Samaritan text, which to me  indicates that the Samaritan text was influenced by the Greek and even copied (preferred) the Greek version for their Samaritan bible. But the Bible itself will shame Eusebius and his generation. We have the benefit of hindsight.

Eusebius says that from the flood to Abraham's birth was 292 AF. And I others have Abraham at 352 AF. A 60 year variance, by assuming that Terah was the first born, but the scriptures do not specify. You have to subtract Terah and Abraham's years to realize Terah was not the first born.

What Eusebius should have done was create a chart of chronology as many of us after him have done, accounting for years after the flood, as well as after Adam, all they way to Jesus' days and death an on to Eusebius' day. And he would have faired far better had he respected the Hebrew version more and the other two bibles less.

Feb. 9, 2015  >>>
In the  Eusebius' Chronicle of an Armenian Greek translation, lists Levi fathering Kohath at 46. And Kohath fathering Amram at age 63. Given Levi born in 87 of Jacob, 599 AF, Kohath follows 46 years later in 645 AF. Amram follows 63 years later at 708 AF.
Amram fathers Moses at 70, we are told. That is 778 AF. Moses leads Israel in the Exodus at 80. That is 858 AF. I have 857 AF prior to this discovery, Feb. 9, 2015. One year difference is not meaningful. I do not know the source Eusebius gathers this info from, But the Bible text is that of the Hebrew Samaritan version. I am stunned. This does not mean the ages filled in are in this text as well, but they could be. Whatever the source, as far as I am concerned, this info is accurate to a year and authentic, legitimate. In fact, Levi is said to be born in year 86 of Jacob. I have 87 as a guess. But starting at 86, which Eusebius does, we still end up at 858 AF.

Greek, Hebrew, and Samaritan versions all agree on the number of years from Abraham at 75, to the Exodus when Moses was 80, as 505 years. But I accept the Apostle Paul's accounting that there would be 430 years of wandering for Abraham's seed, beginning when he was 75. There were 215 years till Jacob and family were brought to Egypt to live with Joseph and Pharaoh. From there was another 215 till the Exodus and 4 generations by way of the line of Levi to Moses.

Verification of this is obtained when one figures from Jacob's arrival in Egypt. Abraham was 75 at 427 AF. Isaac born in 452 AF and Jacob at 512 AF. He was 130 upon arriving in Egypt. 512 AF plus 130 = 642 AF. 642-427 = 215. That only leaves 215 more years left till the Exodus when Israel would return to the land promised to Abraham's seed.

Understand that whether the Dead Sea scrolls Amram info is right or not, the starting dates of Levi are the same to 1 year in either case and the ending year, the year of the Exodus remains the same so that the total gap is accounted for by either scenario. But my work was estimating possible ages, whereas this is solid info related by Eusebius. As far as I am concerned, he wins, hands down.
End update <<<

July 26, 2017 >>> As you see above, I found out about Eusebius' Chronicle but did not find the whole version at that time, more than 2 years ago. In fact, I recorded that the day after I discovered the Hampstead kids' video testimony as to the many horrors of what was going on in the schools of Hampstead, regarding substantial SRA, including daily rape of children, and being prostituted to the public as well. Networks of people in the cult procuring babies in foreign nations and importing them into Londons' two major Airports and funneled thru DHL & Fedex and also thru a Muslim taxicab service as well.

Hence, my work on this was delayed nearly 2.5 years and with the additional discovery of the entirety of Eusebius' Chronicle.
End 2nd update <<<

Abraham leaves Haran at age 75, after his father Terah dies, 427 years after the flood began. This point is essential in determining the complete Chronology from start to finish.
From the time Abraham is 75 in 427 AF to the Exodus is 430 years as we will soon see.

You will note that the Bible shows a dramatic and continual drop in the life spans of people after the flood where as life spans were fairly consistent at about 900 years or so before the flood. One possible reason might be the dramatically reduced gene pool as a result of all but one family of humans being destroyed. That one family would now be left to populate the Earth. The flood may have reduced the mineral content of the soil. The trauma of the flood might even have had some influence on their psyches as well.

Moving on, the birth of Abraham is a spot where chronologists often slip up. Genesis 11:26 states that "26 When Terah had lived seventy years, he became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran." One might jump to the conclusion that maybe Abraham was the first born of Terah. But Abraham left the city of Haran when he was 75 and when his father, Terah, had died at age 205. Genesis 12:4 gives Abraham's age as 75 at this time. So Terah would have been 130 when he fathered Abraham. So it must have been either Nahor or Haran who was actually the first born in Terah's 70th year in Genesis 11:26. Abraham's death appears in Genesis 25:7.

Abraham marries his half sister, Sarah, a daughter of Terah by another wife according to Genesis 20:12. Also, it is Haran, Abraham's brother, who gives birth to Lot before he died. Lot ends up fleeing from the Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. Haran also fathers Milcah who becomes his brother Nahor's wife, even though he is her uncle. It is Nahor and Milcah who become parents of Bethuel who will father Rebekah and Laban (Gen. 24:15, 24, 29). Rebekah is to become Isaac's wife (and is his 2nd cousin) and who will be Jacob's mother. Jacob will later get his wives from Rebekah's brother, Laban. Jacob and his wives were cousins.

Now given that Haran fathered a child who married his brother, it is likely that Haran was the first born since Lot and Milcah were likely closer to Abraham and Nahor in age. Haran died before his father Terah in Ur. The genetics, however narrowed they had become, were certainly much more varied than now so that marrying close relatives was not as potentially harmful to the health of the offspring as it would be now. Further, the law of Moses was still more than 400 hundred years yet to come. The coming law would end permission for close relations to marry. And it was deemed very important to marry only worshippers of Jehovah and He had very few worshippers at that time and they were all in one family line. And personality and values were much more likely to be similar or compatible amongst family members than beyond family relations.

Exodus 12:40 states that there were 430 years of sojourning until leaving Egypt with Moses. This is taken to be Abram (as he was called at that point) leaving Haran to dwell as a foreigner and that there would be 400 years of wandering, servitude, and affliction of his seed (Gen. 15:13-16). And in the 4th generation they would return to "here" which was in Canaan. The 400 years is taken to start with Ishmael taunting Isaac at age 4 or 5 because of what Paul tells us at Galatians 4:27-31. Hagar was an Egyptian woman. Isaac's 5th year (Abraham's 105th) would have been 30 years after Abraham left Haran for Canaan, making a full 430 years in fulfillment of Ex. 12:40.

Without Paul's explanation of how to interpret Gen. 15, we would probably have gotten it wrong. But Paul was authorized and imbued with the Holy Spirit and raised people from the dead so we can believe him.

According to Genesis 21:5, Abraham was 100 at Isaac's birth. When Isaac was 5, Abraham would be 105. If we subtract 30 years from 105, we confirm that Abraham was 75 at the first promise (Gen. 12:1-9) which means the promise of 430 does begin when he left Haran and Terah was 205 at the time of his death. This would prove that Terah was 130 when he had Abraham, not 70. So the son born at 70 years to Terah must have been Nahor or Haran. I'm picking Haran as I explained earlier. But knowing the details of Abraham's life, we know it was not he who was the first born of Terah when Terah began to father children. We need to know in what year Abraham was born to Terah in order to form a complete time line.

DSS (Dead Sea Scrolls) p 462, the DSS writer says that Terah was 145 when he left Ur for Haran. If this is so, then Abraham was 15 at that time. It says Abraham was 75 when he left Haran, so it harmonizes with what I say just above it.

DSS p 534, scroll 4Q545, "Testament of Amram" - supplies some very interesting info from the Dead Sea writer. Said to be from Amram, father of Moses. Here is scroll fragment 1 and what it has to say:

>> 1 Copy of the book of the words of the vision of Amram, son of Kehat [{Kohath}], son of Levi, al[l that] he explained to his sons and enjoined on them on the day of [his] death, in his one-hundred-and-thirty-seventh year, which was the year of his death, [in] the one-hundred-and-fifty-second year of Israel's exile in Egypt ... to call Uzziel, his youngest brother, and he ma[rried] to him Miriam, [his] daughter, and said (to her), ‘You are thirty years old.’ And he gave a banquet lasting seven days. And he ate and drank and made merry during the banquet. Then, when the days of the banquet were completed, he sent to call Aaron, his son, and he was . . . years old …. <<

This does not conflict with my chronology, and it supports Paul's assertions in about the 430 and 400 years of wondering, leaving only about 215 years to be in Egypt. Therefore, I use this date to construct a probable chronological dating for these. Miriam is said to be 30 when married at near the same time as Amram's death at 152 of Exile in Egypt, which is 1556 BC. Moses is born in 1573 BC. So this suggests that Miriam was 17 when Moses was born. This is not unreasonable, either.

We must also wonder about how much written material the Levitical Priesthood had. We know they were the bureaucracy created by God through Moses to keep such records and it might have been quite outstanding. This then brings into question whether what was written by these DSS writers was done before Paul or after. Paul preached from about 40-68 AD before being executed by Emperor Nero of Rome. The writers seemed to have abandoned Qumran, by 68 AD when Rome threatened to attack and then withdrew to settle the fight for Rome after Nero was killed. So the writers could have known many teachings circulated by the Apostles and certainly seemed to know Jesus. I say they were Christian after Jesus arrived. But that will be shown in other articles.

But if this was written before Jesus, which is also possible, then it clearly shows that what Paul wrote was known or believed before he wrote it, suggesting that what he wrote was based on previous knowledge, although it could also have been by Divine Revelation to Paul as well. It leaves a lot of interesting things to wonder.

But it does seem to settle the dispute among some that Israel was in Egypt for only 215 years, not 400 or 430. Some don't like this, thinking it too short a time, but the "several witnesses" seem to put this to rest. DSS writers, Early Christian Post-Apostolic writers, and Paul/Bible.

Isaac marries at 40 (Gen. 25:20). Given that Isaac and Bethuel were likely somewhat close to each other in age, then Bethuel's daughter Rebekah would have been considerably younger than Isaac who she was to marry. Esau and Jacob are twins born to Isaac at age 60 (Gen. 25:26).

Dating becomes even more complicated when calculating the birth of Jacob's sons. Now we would not know at what age Jacob did anything were it not for the information given about him and his son Joseph starting in Genesis 41. We know that Joseph began his rule under pharaoh at the age of 30 (Gen. 41:46) at the beginning of the 7 prosperous years for Egypt. In Genesis 45:11 we see that there are yet 5 years of famine left so the 7 good years and two bad years of Pharaoh's dream have passed since Joseph took power. That would make him 39. Jacob comes down at this time of the famine at age 130, 642 AF (Gen. 47:9). From this we can deduce that Joseph was born to Jacob at 91.

We also know that Jacob began to have children after serving Laban 7 years for Laban's 2 daughters (Genesis 29:20-32). Jacob served Laban 7 more years for Rachel and after having Joseph born, he wanted to leave Laban claiming his time had been fulfilled so we will assume 14 years have passed from the start of Jacob's service until Joseph was born and Jacob was ready to go. But Laban wanted him to stay and made a deal with Jacob. Jacob evidently served 6 more years to fulfill Genesis 31:38 & 41 which states that Jacob had served Laban 20 years.

This does not affect our overall chronologies but it does cause disagreement between myself and Dr. Floyd Nolen Jones. I understand the scriptures as indicating that Jacob worked 7 years before receiving Leah as a wife and Rachel a week later. So all births would have to come after the first 7 years of labor for Laban. But Jones places the births of the first kids in Jacob's first years there working. We both place Joseph at being born when Jacob was 91. But I place Levi and Judah at Jacob 87 and 88. It is no big deal but I did notice it and did not want it to be missed as if I was hiding something. I will stand by my choice.

Now Jacob's wife, Leah, gave birth to Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. Then Bilhah gave birth to Dan and Naphtali. Then Zilpah gave birth to Gad and Asher. Then Leah gives birth to Issachar, Zebulun, and a daughter, Dinah. This makes 11 children to this point. Then Rachel finally gives birth to a son, he being Joseph who we use to link things up in time. After Joseph's birth, Jacob says he fulfilled his agreement after 14 years of service and wanted to leave (Genesis 30:25).

Knowing how old Jacob was at Joseph's birth and knowing in what order and time frame the other children of Jacob were born in, in Genesis 29, we can estimate within about a year, who was born when. If Joseph was born to Jacob at 91 then Jacob started serving Laban at 77. Jacob marries Leah and Rachel at 84 and fathers Reuben at least 9 months later at 85. So there are 6 years for 10 other children besides Reuben and Joseph. We know that since the first 4 were born by Leah that there was likely about a year apart, maybe a little less. Since 3 women (Leah, Bilhah, and Zilpah) were involved in the birth of the other 7, they could have overlapped and been less than 9 months apart as would be required to fit them all in a space of maybe 3 or 4 years. So Levi, born 3rd in line, was born about 2 years after Reuben, when Jacob was 87. This would dictate that there be about 4 years between Joseph and Levi. The Bible will give us the lineage of Levi to Moses. We will use Levi's birth date in estimating the dates around Moses birth and the Exodus. Levi died at age 137 (Exodus 6:16). Getting back to Jacob, after Joseph's birth, Jacob then serves Laban 6 more years and then takes off to see Esau.

After meeting Esau and making up with him, Jacob settles in Shechem. Jacob would have been about 97 or 98 at this time and Joseph about 7 and Dinah not more than a year older in all likelihood, so she would be between 7 and 8. At some length of time while staying here, Jacob's daughter, Dinah, perhaps reluctantly, gives in to the sexual advances of one of the locals (Genesis 34:1 & 2). Jacob consents to a marriage between Dinah and the local man but Jacob's sons, Simeon and Levi, kill all the local men so Jacob and his family have to move on so they go to Bethel. Jacob's family also adopts all the widowed and orphaned wives, mothers, and children of Shechem. These no doubt accompany Jacob's family when they move to Egypt to be with Joseph. This might partially account for the vast mixed company said to accompany Israel out of Egypt during the Exodus.

At Bethel Jacob builds and alter and settles for an undisclosed period of time. While there, Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, dies in Genesis 35:8. This is sort of an interesting side point. Rebekah, Jacob's mother, was married off to Isaac when Isaac was 40. At the time of arranging the marriage, Rebekah is asked if she was willing to go (Gen. 24:58). Rebekah was Isaac's 2nd cousin. Isaac would have been cousin to her father, Bethuel. She said yes and they sent along her nurse as comfort for her (Gen. 24:59). So it may be possible that she was quite young at the time. The Jewish Talmud says she was 10 years old at the time. Given the facts related in the Bible, it is very possible.

Rebekah's nurse, whom we only learn the name of when she dies, died at least 100 years into Jacob's life, which began twenty years after his mother was married and she was at least 10 at that time. Deborah must have been at least 13 or 14 years (likely even more) older than Rebekah to be her nurse at birth. So Deborah must have been at least 145 at the time of her death. How she came to be in the company of Jacob is not said. Although Isaac would be at least 160 at this time, it may have been that Rebekah might have died before her nurse did and was cared for by Jacob after. We are never told about Rebekah's death. Jacob must have grown up in Deborah's presence so he would likely have some affection for her as she likely had some involvement in his upbringing, along with his mother whom he obviously loved. Perhaps Deborah was sent along to Jacob after Rebekah's death. It could have been at any time since it is not mentioned in the Bible.

From Bethel they went up to Ephrath, which later became Bethlehem, but before getting there, Rachel goes into labor and dies giving birth to Benjamin (Gen. 35:16-19). Jacob then makes it to Ephrath we assume and settles beyond the tower of Eder for a period of time. He then goes up to Mamre, later to become Hebron, where Isaac is and Isaac dies and is buried by Jacob and Esau. Isaac died at 180 and Jacob would have been 120 years old at that time and only 10 years away from going to live in Egypt with Joseph. Joseph would have been 29 at the time and only a year away from his appointment by Pharaoh. Joseph is 17 in Genesis 37:2 and dwelling in Hebron (Mamre). So while dwelling in Canaan before Isaac's death, Joseph gets sold into slavery by his brothers (except for Reuben) and brought down to Egypt. Joseph would be 39 when Jacob was 130 as I showed earlier. If we subtract age 17 from 39 (which is 22) for Joseph, and subtract that 22 years from Jacob's 130, we can know that Jacob was 108 years old when Joseph was sold off, unknown to Jacob at the time. Or we could just add 17 years (Joseph's age) to the 91 years of Jacob when Joseph was born which would also give us 108 years of age for Jacob. It would appear that they were living in Hebron at that time.

Sojourn in Egypt
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We know at what approximate age Levi lived and died and we are given the lineage of Levi down to Moses. We know the age of Moses at the time of the Exodus and we know that it was 430 years after Abraham left Haran at 75. From this we can calculate the amount of time between Moses and Levi to arrive at a connected chronological time line. The lineage of Levi is an important part of the fulfillment of the promise in Genesis 15: 16, which stated that in the 4th generation they would return to the land of Canaan that God had promised to them.

Levi comes down into Egypt with his father Jacob/Israel. In Exodus 6:16, Levi fathers Kohath and lives 137 years. In Exodus 6:18, Kohath fathers Amram and lives to be 133. In Exodus 6:20, Amram fathers Moses and Aaron and lives to be 137. Moses and Aaron both father children before all Israel is led out of Egypt by Moses. Levi and all the rest of Jacob's immediate sons were not born in Egypt nor were many of their children, either. So there are 4 generations that come after Levi before leaving Egypt.

I added the years between Levi, Kohath, and Amram to when Amram would have fathered Moses. I divided the years up and got an average of about 60 years as the time when each began fathering children. One or 2 of them could have started earlier and one or 2 later than 60, but overall about a 60 year average. So you will note the approximate space in years between each generation of Levi's line leading to Moses.

Levi was one of the 12 patriarchs (sons of Jacob) who had the tribes of their descendants named after them. If one counts descent from the tribal founders, then that 4th generation does come out of Egypt. But it does not mean that all lineages of Israel would not have more or fewer generations than 4. It likely meant that there were as few as only 4 generations to be born, on the average, in Egypt, before leaving Egypt. If we count after Kohath, Levi's firstborn, we only get 3 generations in Moses' line. But there is a line of Judah who fits that definition if it is taken that they had to be born in Egypt. If the Bible means simply that 4 generations came about, the Levi to Moses is 4.

In Exodus 6:23, "Aaron took to wife Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and the sister of Nahshon; and she bore him Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar." Aaron's wife, Elisheba, was a child of Amminadab as was Nashon. Nashon and Amminadab were of the tribe of Judah. If we look at Luke 3 or Matthew 1 we find 2 different lineages of Joseph, respectively, that show this lineage from Judah to Perez/ Hezron/ Arni/ Amminadab/ Nahshon. And Elisheba gives birth to Eleazar before leaving Egypt. So if one discounts Perez and Hezron since they were born before entering Egypt (Gen. 46:12), then you have your 4 generations here with Arni/ Amminidab/ Elisheba/ Eleazar. I am sure there were many others not recorded that fit the requirements, whatever they may be as well as many who varied from that.

But the key junction of time is in Genesis 41:46 where it is related that Joseph is 30 at the time he is appointed by Pharaoh over all Egypt to gather grain during the 7 good years of growth which were to be followed be 7 years of famine. All of this is related in Genesis 41. Yes, I did mention this earlier. At Genesis 45:6-11, Joseph explains to his brothers that 2 years of famine have gone by and there are yet 5 years of famine left. He tells them to have Jacob come down to Egypt to live. Since Joseph took power at 30 and the 7 years of plenty and 2 years of famine had passed, Joseph would be 39. As soon as Jacob arrives, he is introduced to Pharaoh who asks his age to which Jacob replies 130 (Gen. 49:8-9). Since Jacob is 130 and Joseph is 39, we know that Jacob fathered Joseph at 91 and, therefore, Levi at 87. Now we can figure out how long after the flood these events took place. But we also have the info that from Abraham leaving Haran at 75 to the Exodus, was 430 years. This, too, gives us an accurate and anchored time period.

Joseph ascends as vizier of Egypt at age 30. That would be 633 AF. He then reigns/lives 80 years more and dies at age 110 (713 AF, Gen. 50:26). Levi survives Joseph by 23 years and dies at age 137 (736 AF). Of course I have failed to tell you how I can figure out how we can figure backwards from the birth of Christ (-2 BC). But I will get to it. First we have to establish an order starting from the flood. I use the initials AF after a number to indicate those are the number of years After the Flood. It had been 215 years from Abraham leaving Haran to become a nomad and wanderer in Canaan at age 75 up until Jacob comes down into Egypt at age 130. Since there were to be 430 years as Nomads and aliens, then there would be another 215 years left which would be spent in Egypt until the Exodus.

Acts 7:30 informs us that Moses was 80 when he led Israel out of Egypt. Acts 7:23 tells us he fled Egypt for a while at age 40 (see Exodus 2:11-15). Acts 7:36 tells us that Israel enters Canaan 40 years after the exodus. We know from the Exodus accounts (Deut. 29:5, 34:1-7, Joshua 5:6) that this is 40 years and that Moses dies at this time and does not get to enter the promised land. So Moses was 120 at his death. So we only have to subtract 80 from the remaining 215 years left in Egypt to get his birth.

From all this we know that Joseph dies at 713 AF. Levi dies at 736 AF. And Moses is born at 777 AF, which is just 64 years after Joseph dies and only 41 years after Levi dies. Moses flees from Pharaoh for killing an Egyptian at age 40 which is 817 AF. He leads the Exodus at age 80 - 857 AF. Israel wanders in the desert for 40 years after which Moses dies at age 120. This would be 897 AF. So we have some very important dates now. The date of the Exodus at 857 and the beginning of Joshua's conquest of several major cities begins after Moses dies at 897 AF. We will shortly figure out how many years before Christ that would be.

Just one minor point as to the book of Judges, we are given just one date when the judge Jephthah began his service as a judge. In Judges 11:26 it states, "26 While Israel dwelt in Heshbon and its villages, and in Aroer and its villages, and in all the cities that are on the banks of the Arnon, three hundred years, why did you not recover them within that time?" So it is evident that at Jephthah's rising up to tackle the Ammonites, Israel had been dwelling in place for 300 years and after Jephthah's 6 year reign, there would only be 50 years left until Saul would be appointed king. It doesn't make a difference in anything, though. The book of Judges does not fully enable us to date anything concretely as we have been able to do, otherwise. And the period of Judges will prove to be 356 years, a fairly lengthy space of time.

I have come across some chronologists who track time from the Exodus as well using LM, initials for Hebrew words. But I have elected to use EX Exodus do denote this line of dating to accommodate English speakers. I do this because AE After Exodus is one too many A's. EX is easy to associate with the EXodus.  So I have added this line of dating as EX as well as the AF  for After Flood, and BC for Before Christ.

I note that there are 41 years between the death of Levi and the birth of Moses so that most if not all the founding tribal fathers were gone/dead at least 40 years before Moses came along and 120 years before they left Egypt. So there was about 95-100 years of the first generation then about 115-120 years of the remaining generations that obviously would overlap.

2008 AA  Abraham born 130 of Terah 352 AF     -1998 BC
2083 AA  Terah dies at 205 427 AF     -1923 BC
2083 AA  Abraham at 75 Sojourns 427 AF     -1923 BC
2108 AA  Isaac born 100 of Abraham 452 AF     -1898 BC
2168 AA  Jacob born 60 of Isaac 512 AF     -1838 BC
2255 AA  Levi born 87 of Jacob 599 AF     -1751 BC
2256 AA  Judah born 88 of Jacob 600 AF     -1750 BC
2259 AA  Joseph born 91 of Jacob 603 AF     -1747 BC
2298 AA  Jacob comes to Egypt at 130 642 AF     -1708 BC
2298 AA  Joseph is 39 642 AF     -1708 BC
2298 AA  Egyptian Sojourn begins 215 years 642 AF     -1708 BC
  AA  Kohath* born ?? of Levi  (57) {660} AF       BC
2369 AA  Joseph dies at 110 713 AF     -1637 BC
  AA  Amram* born ?? of Kohath  (60) {720} AF       BC
2392 AA  Levi dies at 137 736 AF     -1614 BC
2433 AA  Moses born ?? of Amram  (57) 777 AF     -1573 BC
2473 AA  Moses at 40 flees to Midian 817 AF     -1533 BC
2513 AA  Moses at 80 leads Exodus 857 AF 1 EX -1493 BC
2553 AA  Moses at 120 dies 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC
2553 AA  Joshua  takes over Israel 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC
2553 AA  Judges BEGINS 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC
2909 AA  Judges ENDS 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC
2909 AA  Saul 40 years 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC
2949 AA  David 40 years 1293 AF 436 EX -1057 BC
2989 AA  Solomon 40 years 1333 AF 476 EX -1017 BC
2993 AA  Solomon's 4th Year 1337 AF 480 EX -1013 BC

1159-1141 BC was another major climate disruption (in the tree ring records) that took place during the time of the Judges. It begins in 1159 BC which is just 62 years before the Period of the Judges ended in 1097 BC, with Saul becoming king.

1 Kings 6: 1 informs us that construction of the Temple began in year 4 of Solomon was in the 480th year (2nd month) since the Exodus and took 7 years to build, after which it began service in Solomon's 11th year, 487 EX, 1006 BC. A full 479 years and 2 months had gone by. I use the round figure of 480, but Jones is correct when he says 479 and so the number of years I give for dates Before Christ back beyond year 4 of Solomon, could be inflated by 1 year in my dates and figures (maybe). But Jones and I are in complete agreement to this point, going forth from the birth of Adam, otherwise.

From the Kings to Jerusalem's Fall
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This is the critical and controversial period for it is not completely clear how it is to be reckoned or determined. Or at the least, it is reckoned many different ways. We will see as we go on.

Some things to keep in mind when we deal with the dates of the Kings. When the scriptures say that such and such occurred in the, say, 41st year of so and so, that means that he rules a full 40 years and was the king in power at the beginning of the new year which would be the 41st year of his reign. But he could die in that year and another king take over. But that king would not be acknowledged until the next new year and that would be called his 1st year. And events said to be in a given year could be anytime within that year unless a specific month is given. So dates can be nearly as much as a year off when trying to match things up with the kings of Judah and the kings of Israel/Samaria.

And since we are told so often that in the such and such year of a king that  . . . we are left to wonder about when in the year of a king that something happened or when a king begins to reign. One might start only a month into a new year or might start in the 11th month of a year. So in the year of is vague and can leave you nearly a year off and if you get 2 or 3 kings who all start early or late in succession, then you could be 2 or 3 years off. This is one reason why getting the kings of Judah and Israel to match up since this drift can often leave us a year or 2 apart. It is at least possible that over the span of 6,000 years, we might be off by 5 years or so for all we know. But it would be reasonable to expect that those starting early in a year and those starting late in a year would even out, about 50/50. Chronology is nearly impossible to be completely precise on and we shouldn't expect too much of it. My purpose is to give the closest estimate possible to give us a reasonable time frame, one that can be important when dealing with prophecies. But here, too, if we can come within a year or 2, then we likely have a match or possible match, given the uncertainty factor.

Added to this problem is that after Jerusalem's fall, Bible writers begin keeping dates by connecting them to a ruling king of the empire in power over Jerusalem and Judah such as Babylon or Medo-Persia. Their new years or months from which they begin a new king's reign are different from Israel's. So you will often see the month mentioned as well. And all these new years are different from the Julian Calendar's new year month from which we get the BC/AD dating. So we could easily be 1 or several years off in one direction or the other. So if we can come to within 1 to 2 years, we got a match.

The next critical juncture in dating comes at 1 Kings 6:1 and 6:37 where it states that Solomon's 4th year of reign, when the temple began construction, had been 480 years (in the 480th year to be exact) after the Exodus. Another joint in this time puzzle comes in Ezekiel 4:1-7 where the prophet Ezekial speaks of 390 years for the house of Israel's error and 40 years for the house of Judah's error. That is a total of 430 years. But whether those are separate time periods or concurrent is debatable. Donald Redford had this scenario in his book on "Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times" as separate consecutive years totaling a span of 430 years, which I initially accepted due to the Judean king's reigns seeming to add up to 430 from the 4th of Solomon. This was assuming 8 years for Jehoram of Judah, son of Jehoshaphat. But with the Israelite kings of this time also linked, there is no mistaking that Jehoram of Judah should be 4 years beyond Jehoshaphat's death, not 8 years. There were likely another 4 as a co-rex king with his father. Be sure to check out my Chronology of the Kings for more on these junctures.

But as I considered all this in January of 2009, I began to appreciate that the 40 years for Judah could apply to several situations, none of which was necessarily affected by Israel's 390 years. The only thing essential would be the 390 for Israel. We can get a full 390 years for Israel/Samaria's entire existence, only if we count each Judean king's reign as full without any co-regency except that of Jehoshaphat and his son Jehoram and include Israel's years as running past their destruction and continuing into the remaining years of Judah before they, too, were destroyed by Babylon. So it would seem absolutely essential to do this in order to give Ezekiel's prophecy any credence at all. But then why the gap in Israel's lengths of kingly reigns. Jones and I recognize 261 years at the Assyrian conquest and deportation, as we do not accept any Judean co-regencies beyond Jehoshaphat/Jehoram. My Chronology of the Kings will answer all. I link to it at the end of this article.

We can count back from year 4 of Solomon to find out how long ago the Exodus was supposed to have taken place. From the Exodus to year 4 of Solomon's reign (the Exodus at 857 AF + 480 years to Solomon's 4th year = 1337) is 1337 AF. From year 4 of Solomon to Jerusalem's destruction is another 426 years, which gives us a date of 1767 AF. So if we reckon the year of Jerusalem's fall to be 1767 AF and 587 BC, we come up with a date of 1493 BC for the Exodus. Jericho would fall in 1453 BC. Jacob and his family come to Egypt to live with Joseph in 1708 BC. Abraham leaves Haran at age 75 to begin his sojourn in 1927 BC. And the big one, the flood occurs, at 2350 BC, by the Bible's accounting. So when we venture back to find the Exodus or Joshua's conquests, we should be looking at dates of about 1500 BC for the Exodus and 1450 BC for the fall of Jericho. Now I am going to show the precise places that I get dates from to verify some of the events between the Exodus and the fall of Jerusalem, including the reigns of the kings of Judah.

Now we know when Joshua first invaded Canaan and we know when they began construction in the 4th year of Solomon and that there are 440 years (480-40) between the 2 events. Acts 13:21 says that Saul reigned as Israel's first king for 40 years. Then King David ruled for 40 years (2 Sam. 5:4). Solomon then follows David and reigns for 40 years (1 Kings 11:42). We only have to back out the 4 years of Solomon's reign before starting construction of the temple and back out the reigns of David and Saul to close in on the period of the judges. The period of the Judges starts with Joshua taking over from Moses and entering Canaan and continues until the appointment of Saul as king over Israel. That would be 897 AF / 1453 BC  to  1253 AF / 1097 BC, a time span of 356 years.

Some might say, why not add up the reigns of the judges to get that time span. The lengths of the reigns of the judges adds up to more than 356 years. Part of the problem is that the judges reigned/judged in different areas of Israel. So while one may have been serving in southern Israel, another might have been appointed in northern Israel or western Israel near the Philistines. So there could have been and almost certainly were overlaps in the reigns of various judges. But we do know the beginning and end of that period. That, of itself, will prove to be quite useful. For the period of the Kings, we can pick back up with Solomon.

2433 AA  Moses born ?? of Amram  (57) 777 AF     -1573 BC
2473 AA  Moses at 40 flees to Midian 817 AF     -1533 BC
2513 AA  Moses at 80 leads Exodus 857 AF 1 EX -1493 BC
2553 AA  Moses at 120 dies 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC
2553 AA  Joshua  takes over Israel 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC
2553 AA  Judges BEGINS 897 AF 40 EX -1453 BC
2909 AA  Judges ENDS 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC
2909 AA  Saul 40 years 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC
2949 AA  David 40 years 1293 AF 436 EX -1057 BC
2989 AA  Solomon 40 years 1333 AF 476 EX -1017 BC
2993 AA  Solomon's 4th Year 1337 AF 480 EX -1013 BC


Judean Kings Chronology List
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2909 AA  Judges ENDS 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC    
2909 AA  Saul 40 years 1253 AF 396 EX -1097 BC   Acts 13: 21
2949 AA  David 40 years 1293 AF 436 EX -1057 BC   2 Samuel 5: 4
2989 AA  Solomon 40 years 1333 AF 476 EX -1017 BC   1 Kings 11: 42
2993 AA  Solomon's 4th Year 1337 AF 480 EX -1013 BC   Temple   begins
3029 AA  Reheboam 17 years 1373 AF 516 EX -977 BC   1 Kings 14: 21
3029 AA  Israel Separates 1373 AF 516 EX -977 BC    
3046 AA  Abijam 3 years 1390 AF 533 EX -960 BC   1 Kings 15: 1-2
3049 AA  Asa 41 years 1393 AF 536 EX -957 BC   1 Kings 15: 9-10
3090 AA  Jehoshaphat 25 years 1434 AF 577 EX -916 BC   1 Kings 22: 42
3115 AA  Jehoram* 8/4 years 1459 AF 602 EX -895 BC   2 Kings 8: 17
3119 AA  Ahaziah 1 year 1463 AF 606 EX -887 BC   2 Kings 8: 26
3120 AA  *Athaliah 7 years 1464 AF 607 EX -886 BC   2 Kings 11: 3-4
3127 AA  Jehoash 40 years 1471 AF 614 EX -879 BC   2 Kings 12: 1
3167 AA  Amaziah 29 years 1511 AF 654 EX -839 BC   2 Kings 14: 1-2
3196 AA  Uzziah 52 years 1540 AF 683 EX -810 BC   2 Kings 15: 1-2
3248 AA  Jotham 16 years 1592 AF 735 EX -758 BC   2 Kings 15: 32-33
3264 AA  Ahaz 16 years 1608 AF 751 EX -742 BC   2 Kings 16: 1-2
3280 AA  Hezekiah 29 years 1624 AF 767 EX -726 BC   2 Kings 18: 2
3309 AA  Manasseh 55 years 1653 AF 796 EX -697 BC   2 Kings 21: 1
3364 AA  Amon 2 years 1708 AF 851 EX -642 BC   2 Kings 21: 19
3366 AA  Josiah 31 years 1710 AF 853 EX -640 BC   2 Kings 22: 1
3397 AA Babylon defeats Assyria, Josiah killed 1741 AF 884 EX -609 BC    
3397 AA  *Jehoahaz 0 years 3 months 1741 AF 884 EX -609 BC   2 Kings 23: 31
3397 AA  Jehoiakim 11 years 1741 AF 884 EX -609 BC   2 Kings 23: 36
3408 AA  *Jehoiachin 0 years 3 months 1752 AF 895 EX -597 BC   2 Kings 24: 8
3408 AA  Zedekiah 11 years 1752 AF 895 EX -598 BC   2 Kings 24: 18
3419 AA  Jerusalem  Falls to Babylon 1763 AF 906 EX -587 BC    
3419 AA  Israel  Fulfills 390 Years 1763 AF 906 EX -587 BC    

510 Years    from Saul's start         to the Fall of Jerusalem in 587 BC
426 Years    from Solomon's 4th    to the Fall of Jerusalem in 587 BC

We have no way to verify the 426 period from Solomon year 4 to Jerusalem's fall, the way we do for the 480 years from the Exodus to Solomon year 4. Most every other period has some means of verifying the length of the period. But we do have the 390 years for Israel and that fairly secures a check point length of time.

2 Kings is generally assumed to be written by various prophets, most notably Jeremiah, who may have compiled the writings of the other prophets and other documents of the kings which have now been lost to us. Whoever the writer was, he had a specific reason for why the book of 2 Kings was to be written. It had a certain goal. In both Kings and Chronicles, the main subject was always the Judean king line as that was the king line from which Jesus would take the throne of, being himself, a descendant of David. Both Kings and Chronicles generally only mention Israel as it relates to Judah and the Judean kings.

The Bible usually strives for brevity in most matters. Many details, which are desirable to historians for the sake of more credibility, are not deemed necessary for matters, which are assumed to be taken in trust/faith. So the Bible strips an account down to only the necessary detail to convey the main points relating to God and the fulfillment of His purpose and to promote true worship. Israel/Samaria was not an essential part of the Godly narrative, so some of its details are ignored. This is much more evident in the Chronicles than it is in the Kings. This becomes very obvious when you consider what is missing in Chronicles. Ezra is the author/editor of the 2 books of Chronicles.

2 Chronicles 16: "1 In the thirty-sixth year of the reign of Asa, Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah, and built Ramah, that he might permit no one to go out or come in to Asa, king of Judah."

What is not mentioned prior to this is that Nadab ruled one year before being killed by Baasha. Neither Nadab or Baasha's assassination of Nadab is told in Chronicles, though mentioned in Kings. Baasha is only mentioned as he becomes relevant to the lineage and events of Judah and the royal line from which Jesus will descend (sort of), and ascend to the throne, so to speak.

2 Kings tells us that Omri kills Zimri in the 27th year of Asa, but does not become king until the 31st year of Asa. For 4 years Israel had a struggle for power before Omri came out on top. Chronicles tells us nothing of this matter.

After Baasha, we are next introduced to Ahab in 2 Chronicles 18:1. Left out completely are Elah, Zimri, and Omri. Amazing! Even more amazing is that Jeroboam ruled for 41 years and never got mentioned once. Zechariah isn't mentioned. Shallum, Menahem, and Pekahiah are passed over. Finally, Pekah is mentioned during the reign of Ahaz of Judah in chapter 28. Ezra leaves so many details. Clearly, chronology is not his concern.

2 Chronicles Chapter 28 is a very good example of how the Chronicles relate different details from what are told (or not told) to us in the books of the Kings. The Kings' accounts avoid certain information not deemed important for their purpose. But they must have had some relevance so they were later recorded by Ezra in the Chronicles.

Now imagine this! Chronicles doesn't even mention Hoshea or the fall of Samaria/Israel to Assyria, one of the more significant events of the period. Further, it should be noted that Elijah is barely mentioned and Elisha, another famous prophet, is not mentioned at all. These were not the events that the author of Chronicles (Ezra) chose to focus on. They were not relevant to what he was writing for, evidently, as he was guided by the Spirit of God.

We can see from a comparison of accounts that neither Kings or Chronicles are comprehensive in their accountings of the kings of Israel as well as some other points/details. Each leaves certain details out. And evidently, they were not deemed essential details as other details proved not to be, from other books. However, that being said, the apparent discrepancies are cleared up by Jones and myself. Many previous works did not consider important possibilities in placing kings of Israel. If you place the kings of Israel in time without carefully considering them with the years of the kings of Judah, then you will have discrepancies. But both together will eliminate them. Only here at Truth 1!

Think about it! Look who was ignored in Chronicles. There were many assassinations among those kings of Israel not listed. And their reigns very short. The same might have been true for the time periods for which there is no accounting for Israel. They may have been periods of chaos for all we know. These facts give us every reason to logically conclude that Israel is missing some years of accounting, even in the book of 2 Kings, rather than trying to shrink the years of the Judean kings by assuming some co-regencies not spelled out in any detail.

We have every reason to take the years of the Judean kings at face value and calculate 426 years from the 4th year of Solomon to the end of Judah by the hand of Babylon. This enables us to figure out the approximate year of the Exodus and the Flood, going back from the conquest of Judah/Jerusalem by Babylon. That is what we want!

Some notes on the king list. Athaliah is said to have reigned 6 years and then in the 7th year, Jehoash was put on the throne. We don't know when in the 7th year so I arbitrarily assumed six months. But I rounded off years when picking a date for the beginning of each reign so I gave her a full 7 years and gave nothing to the 2 kings who only ruled 3 months each much later near the time of Judah's fall to Babylon. There is a * beside the 3 kings of which I speak. The 2 kings who only reigned 3 months each for a total of 6 months, which, when added to Athaliah's 6.5, give us a full 7 years. I give the 2 with 3 months nothing to equal out giving Athaliah a full 7. The total length of the kings years is 510 years from Saul to Zedekiah.

I might point out that Jehu was in his 7th year when Jehoash was put on the throne. So when I give Athaliah 7, it is not an unreasonable choice or policy to give full years for "in the year of."

Now this period of Kings is critical to the whole scheme of Bible Chronology. For it is in the 4th year of Solomon that is marked in the Bible as the 480th year after the Exodus. Further, we have a date that would appear to be backed by astronomical verification at 587 BC, as being the final destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon. What ever number of years we have for the reigns of kings between the 4th of Solomon and the fall of Jerusalem in 587 will determine the total length of Biblical Chronology up to the time of Christ and beyond. So this period is very important to get right and we don't really have any means of double checking this period, other than allowing for 390 years to Israel, which I will deal with shortly.

Brad Aaronson has a nice summary of why that date could vary. His account follows here:

"The date of the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem is given variously as 586 BCE and 587 BCE. It seems possible that most partisans of one or the other date are not even aware of the reasons behind them. According to Babylonian records, Nebuchadnezzar exiled Jehoiachin and replaced him with Zedekiah in Adar of 597 BCE.48  If Judah used a Tishrei year and accession year dating, the destruction of the Temple in Av of Zedekiah's eleventh year occurred in 586 BCE. If Judah used Tishrei years and non-accession year dating, the destruction was in 587 BCE. If Judah used Nisan years and non-accession year dating, the correct date is 588 BCE. And if, as seems to have been the case, Judah used Nisan years and accession year dating, the destruction of the Temple occurred in 587 BCE. "

"48Wiseman, pp.32-33"         <<< End of Aaronson quote

I want to point out that 2 of the 4 scenarios argue for 587 BC as the date, with just one instance for 586 and 588. Judah used Aramean names (the language of Aram, son of Shem, from whom the Babylonians descended from)  that the Babylonians used for the months of the year, after they came back from Babylonian Exile. They could have used them before, after Nebuchadnezzar first invaded Judah, but it is uncertain. But it would seem to me that the preponderance of evidence would favor 587. Technically, its not all that important whether it is 586, 587, or 588.

The Co-Regency & Ezekiel's Prophecy
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I had originally published this article of my chronology in 2000. But upon careful review of this in January of 2009, I saw my error that had caused my chronology to be about 4 years longer than Jones. I had not discerned the carefully spelled out reigns from Asa to Jehoram of Judah. There was a co-regency, the only one given in Kings and Chronicles, between Jehoshaphat and his son, Jehoram of Judah, not to be confused with Jehoram of Israel. I quote the scriptures here which clearly reinforce the reigns of Jehoshaphat and his son, Jehoram of Judah, thanks to the interlocking reigns of contemporary concurrent kings of Israel. This is likely a reason why the reigns of these Israelite kings were mentioned here, while others were possibly ignored in Kings and definitely left out in Chronicles.

1 Kings 16: 29  And in the thirty eighth year of Asa the king of Judah , Ahab the son of Omri began to reign over Israel . And Ahab the son of Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty two years;

1 Kings 22:
41  And Jehoshaphat the son of Asa reigned over Judah in the fourth year of Ahab the king of Israel .
42  He was a son of thirty five years when he began to reign. And he reigned twenty five years in Jerusalem .

1 Kings 22:
50  And Jehoshaphat lay with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of his father David.
      And his son Jehoram reigned in his place.
51  Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah ,
      and reigned two years over Israel .

2 Kings 1:
17  And he [Ahaziah] died, according to the word of Jehovah that Elijah spoke. And Jehoram [another son of Ahab] reigned in his place,
      in the second year  of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat, the king of Judah , for he [Ahaziah] had no son.
18  And the rest of the acts of Ahaziah that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Matters of the Days of the Kings of Israel?

2 Kings 3: 1  And Jehoram the son of Ahab reigned over Israel in Samaria , in the eighteenth year of
                Jehoshaphat the king of Judah ; and he reigned twelve years.

2 Kings 8:
16  And in the fifth year of Jehoram the son of Ahab the king of Israel, and Jehoshaphat was king of Judah, 
      Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat, the king of Judah, reigned.
17  And he was a son of thirty two years when he began his reign. And he reigned eight years in Jerusalem .

Ahab rules 22 years, beginning in 38th of Asa who rules nearly 41 in all. We’ll say 40.5.
Jehoshaphat begins in Ahab’s 4th (3.5 years maybe).
Jehoshaphat rules 25 years.
Ahab rules about 17 into Jehoshaphat’s reign.
The son of Ahab, Ahaziah, rules for 2 years, starting in 17th of Jehoshaphat.
Jehoshaphat has about 8 years left at this point.
Jehoram replaces Ahaziah in 18th of Jehoshaphat and reigns 12 years.  

3049 AA  Asa 41 years 1393 AF 536 EX -957 BC   1 Kings 15: 9-10
3090 AA  Jehoshaphat 25 years 1434 AF 577 EX -916 BC   1 Kings 22: 42
3115 AA  Jehoram* 8/4 years 1459 AF 602 EX -895 BC   2 Kings 8: 17
3119 AA  Ahaziah 1 year 1463 AF 606 EX -887 BC   2 Kings 8: 26

In Jehoram’s (of Israel) 5th, while Jehoshaphat is still king, his son, also named Jehoram (of Judah), also begins to reign, along with his father, who has about 4 years left to live. Jehoram of Judah reigns 8 years, which will be about 4 years beyond his father, Jehoshaphat. Brad Aaronson also comes up with 4 years after Jehoshaphat. Jones seems to come up with about the same. You will note that I put the key areas to more carefully consider, in bold face type, so you know right where to go. Note Jehoram originally was given 8 years by me and then changed to 4 beyond Jehoshaphat. Jehoram did reign 8 but not alone. The first 4 were with his father and God left us no doubt by including the Israelite kings' reigns to make it clear.

This is a place to easily make an error and I did in 2000. It also highlights why it is important to continually compare your work with others and consult good capable people for "in the multitude of counselors there is wisdom" and "salvation." Particularly so, when you are not coming up with the same result. It could be easy to dismiss the other guys as wrong but if one only wants the truth, then one has to know why and settle why your work might differ from others. As it was, I was wrong, missing some small, but very important, details. And that gives me a chance to correct it and in the process, deliver a more reliable result that everyone may put more trust in.

The end result is that I can agree completely with Dr. Jones' work and findings, which is as it ought to be, if we have done our work correctly. It should be independently verifiable and it is.

There is a well known work concerning Assyrian kings and their years and how they match up or not with Judean and Israelite kings. Its author is Edwin R. Thiele (1895-1986) and his work, "The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings" 1977. Regardless of claims, Thiele tends to slight Bible citations in favor of Assyrian numbers. By all accounts who consider the Bible infallible such as myself, Dr. Jones, or Brad Aaronson, Thiele's interpretations and manipulations are unacceptable and unscientific in procedure. Many scholars prefer the Assyrian dates which sometimes have astronomical observations precariously attached to them, as the dates of certainty when they differ from the Bible. Only problem is that Assyria has often been suspect of faking certain observations for symbolic or ritual meaning of the reign of a king.

With Egypt, the astronomical dates are not even certain as to what they align with. Further, all the nations in the general area of the Mid-East are rather suspect when it comes to candor and credibility. They often change and wipe out certain kings such as Egypt with the Amarna period kings, and twist and distort military accounts, if not outright deny them or claim victory where there was none. The Bible, by contrast, has always followed honesty and credibility in revealing the shame or losses of their kings and people. So we who trust the Bible, do so for good reason, which, while we do so by virtue of our faith in it as the inspired word of God, we also do so by reason of sound scientific procedure, preferring sources who have always proved more honest, candid, and revealing than those of other nations.

Jones and Aaronson deal quite a bit with Thiele. Jones does not devote quite as much to Thiele as Aaronson does. But Aaronson does shorten the kings' years of Judah by about 16-20 years from what Jones and I come up with. I do not concern myself with the Assyrian kings here. My concern is working up an internal Biblical Chronology, independent of other concerns, which can then be scrutinized and criticized along side other chronologies.

Now I want to address the Ezekiel prophecy and cover some details.
Ezekiel 4: 1-6
1  And you, son of man, take a brick to yourself, and lay it before you, and engrave on it a city, Jerusalem .
2  And lay a siege on it, and build a fort on it, and pour out a ramp on it. And place a camp on it, and set battering rams all around on it.
3  And you, take a griddle of iron to yourself, and place it as a wall of iron between you and the city.
    And place your face against it, and it shall be under siege, and thrust upon it. It is a sign to the house of Israel .
4  And you, lie down on your left side, and lay the iniquity of the house of Israel on it.
    The number of the days that you shall lie down on it, you shall bear their iniquity.

5  For I have laid on you the years of their iniquity, according to the number of days: three hundred and ninety days.
    And you shall bear the house of Israel ’s iniquity.

6  And when you complete them, even lie on your right side, the second. And you shall bear the house of
’s iniquity forty days; a day for a year. I have set it for you, a day for a year.
7  And you shall set your face toward the siege of Jerusalem , and your arm bared; and you shall prophesy over it.

Israel broke off from Rehoboam near the beginning of his reign. Jeroboam was instructed by God's prophet to be king. But Jeroboam sinned by not encouraging the people to continue God's worship in Jerusalem every year. Jeroboam created pagan temples and worship in Israel and spurned Jerusalem and Jehovah, the God of both Judah and Israel. Now many people of Israel fled to Judah after Israel/Samaria was destroyed by Assyria. So that is why their error continued to be counted until the fall of Jerusalem. They had not all been taken away by Assyria. The error was an error of the people and their kings, and so it would fall on the people when they got hauled off to Babylon when Jerusalem fell. This seems like an easy and obvious interpretation to me, and Jones as well. From Rehoboam to Jerusalem's fall amounts to 390 years and Jeroboam immediately setting up false worship starts the error that must be answered for. To create any more co-regencies among Judean kings would shorten this 390 period and invalidate the prophecy of Jehovah.

So what is or where is, the 40 years to Judah, you ask? Jones suggests that it was/is the commencement Jeremiah's prophecies from the 13th year of Josiah to the 9th year of Zedekiah when the last siege was underway. This sounds very convincing to me. Jeremiah's 40 year term as a prophet, was a very important period. And this period runs concurrent with the 390 years for Israel. And a 40 year term would be when Divine messages were being delivered AND ignored so as to merit judgment. And 40 is a common prophetic length which God employs to help us recognize His control of things down here on earth.

We also happen to know the exact year of Nebuchadnezzar when he besieged and conquered Jerusalem. And the astronomical observations that accompany Nebuchadnezzar's reign give us some real precision for this date, which is given by historians as 587/586 BC. If we use the Jewish reckoning of Jubilee years, which they kept track of, even though they did not free slaves or write off debt as they were supposed to, every 7 years and every 50th year after 7 cycles of 7 years. Using their dates, we would have to go with 587 BC rather than 586 BC. But if someone wants to suggest that it was 586 BC, I would say fine. It is not a big deal. It's just 1 year. From 587 BC as the starting point, we can add the Bible's chronology.

The Bible does not keep dates by Judean kings after Jerusalem's Fall to Babylon. From then on in, it uses the numbers and reigns of secular kings and empires. In the year of Nebuchadnezzarfor example, or note how Jesus' baptism was in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar. This was likely done by the Bible/Jehovah to make a point of Judean kings no longer sitting on the throne of God, as it had been handed over to the nations. It was also likely done so that perhaps time tracking would and could be done by means of secular dates to allow for a continuing chronology through to the end. God could certainly see ahead and plan for an accounting of time, if that was important to Him and it would appear that it was and is.

Missing information about Israel or Assyria is not important, really. Some of Assyria's records may even be forged / corrupted in all likelihood. We have the Bible Chronology established by the Judean king line and do not require more.

70 or 50 Years of Desolation?
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What follows is the critical juncture in the Bible that allows us to calculate the date of the fall of Jerusalem to Nebuchadrezzer and the BC dates for Bible events.

Jeremiah 52:
12 In the fifth month, on the tenth day of the month--which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon--
     Nebuzaradan the captain of the bodyguard who served the king of Babylon, entered Jerusalem.
13 And he burned the house of the LORD, and the king's house and all the houses of Jerusalem; every great house he burned down.
14 And all the army of the Chaldeans, who were with the captain of the guard, broke down all the walls round about Jerusalem.
15 And Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive some of the poorest of the people and the rest of the people
     who were left in the city and the deserters who had deserted to the king of Babylon, together with the rest of the artisans.
16 But Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard left some of the poorest of the land to be vinedressers and plowmen.

The 19th year of Nebuchadrezzar would have been 1767 AF: 587 BC. We have astronomical observations of the Babylonians and thousands of cuneiform documents of business/banking to back this BC date up so it is as reliable as is humanly possible, as I had mentioned earlier.

Nebuzaradan also carried off the utensils and decorations of the Temple as well. We are also informed in Jeremiah 52:30 that more people were taken out of Jerusalem to Babylon in Nebuchadrezzar's 23rd year. So Jerusalem was not even desolate for 50 years. More like 46 or 47. But it was 50 years from the fall of Jerusalem to the fall of Babylon.


This next piece is not essential to my accounting of chronology, necessarily, unless disputed by some of another accounting, so I will address their figures. In the early 1830's or 1840's in the USA, a man by the name of William Miller, by figuring a day for a year, as done in Ezekiel 4:1-4, calculated the 7 times of Daniel 4 as 7 years multiplied by 360 days. They calculate 12 thirty day months to get 360, which is what is done in Revelation 11:2-3. This method allows them to come up with 2520 years. Miller used a chronology of the Bible to arrive at 1844 as the year that the so-called Gentile times would end, and the world would end along with it. He was not the first to make this calculation and others, but he was the most notable for getting others excited about it. It was a very important time period in USA's religious history and had a lasting impact, for the better, I suspect. Christians have been on watch for the end ever since.

While Miller's interpretation of prophecy failed, a number of groups were born out of that failed movement. Some continued to adhere to a version of that 2520 years, most notably the International Bible Students Association (IBSA - with Charles Russell as their founder) and Jehovah's Witnesses, who broke off from the IBSA. Seventh Day Adventists also use this 2520 year scheme. For them, determining when this time period starts, absolutely depends on discerning the correct date of the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon, as that is the starting point for them.

But what they do, is assume that Jerusalem had to be desolate and without inhabitant for 70 years. And since secular authorities say it was conquered for 50 years, these groups assume that there must have been another 20 years that was missed or deliberately misrepresented for whatever reason. So they determine that Jerusalem was conquered 70 years before it was re-inhabited. Incidentally, there are a number of religious groups who make this error. It is far from being just 2 or 3 groups. Babylon fell and the Judeans/Israelites were released in 539 BC. Those insisting on 70 years of desolation figure 2 years for Israel to get ready and travel back to Jerusalem where they arrive in 537 BC. If they didn't, then it would only be 68 years, right? Going back 70 years from there would give them 607 BC. So they say the destruction was in 607 BC rather than 587 BC. The only problem is that the Bible does not say that Jerusalem was abandoned and desolate for 70 years or that it even had to be. This misunderstanding comes from a scripture in Daniel 9:2. The scripture states:

Daniel 9:2 "In the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood the number of the years by books, which came as the word of Jehovah to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem."

What Daniel left out, as he no doubt assumed that everyone was familiar with the prophecy of Jeremiah from which he took it from, is that God would accomplish 70 years (for Babylon) in the desolations of Jerusalem. And since Babylon had just fallen and Cyrus had begun ruling, Daniel knew it was time for a change in regards to Israel. This scripture makes it sound like Jerusalem should be desolate for 70 years. But Daniel is loosely referring to Jeremiah's prophecy (Jer. 25:11). While one could easily misunderstand the way Daniel stated it, there is no mistaking how Jeremiah stated it. And it is his prophecy from God, not Daniel's. Jeremiah 25:11 says:

Jeremiah 25:11 "This whole land shall become a ruin and a waste, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years."

Jerusalem was to be desolate for an undisclosed amount of time, up to the destruction of Babylon, but the 70 years were the amount of time that the various nations in the region of Israel such as Philistia, Syria, Egypt, Tyre, Assyria, and others were to serve Babylon. And in fact, Babylon began to win and conquer all its enemies even as far back as 609 BC so she easily could qualify as having ruled and fought successfully for 70 years! It was in 609 BC that the Assyrian empire fell to Babylon in defeat. Egypt was also involved trying to help Assyria but ended up retreating. Assyria could be (it was by the Bible) considered the reigning power of the region. With Babylon's victory over Assyria, Babylon could be considered the reigning power of the area. Who would be better qualified? But this is not the only Bible proof in this matter.

In Zechariah 1:1 we are told that a prophetic message had come to Zechariah in the eighth month of the second year of Darius, which is some 20 years after Cyrus took over Babylon and Israel was released from captivity. That becomes important because in verse 12, an angel asks:

Zechariah 1:12 "And the Angel of Jehovah answered and said, O Jehovah of hosts, until when will You not have pity on Jerusalem, and on the cities of Judah, against which You have cursed these seventy years?"

The Bible says that it was 70 years only after they had been back for 20 years. So even the Bible only makes a claim for 50 years of actual subjection/desolation. And not only does the king list of Babylon only record 50 years but the Jewish historian Josephus also reckons close to that number in revealing the chronology of the kings of Phoenicia during the same period of time (Josephus - Against Apion I: 21). If we ignore his starting date (the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar), which is in conflict with the Bible's (the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar), but use his list commencing with the Bible's starting date, then we arrive at 48 years from the siege of Tyre to the 1st year of Cyrus when Babylon was conquered. Tyre was attacked just after Jerusalem. This puts us close enough to 50 years and much closer than is 70 years. So we have at least 4 witnesses, 2 of them being the Bible, that refute anything other than 50 years of subjection and desolation which allow us the date of 587/6 BC for the destruction of Jerusalem and not 607/6 BC. From here we can calculate dates going backward in the Bible as I have done.

It should also be known that in Eusebius' Chronicle, a well known work though not one that is whole/complete, but missing some parts, contains, in the Armenian Greek language copy of this work, in the section dealing with Hebrew Dynasties/Chronologies, Eusebius believes there are 2 70 year periods, him recognizing that one period applied to Babylon, beginning with its Conquest of Assyria and Egypt, and ending with Babylon falling to Cyrus the Persian. Then a 2nd period of 70 years applying to Jerusalem first having people taken as prisoners to Babylon and then released by Darius in the description given in Zechariah.

So even Eusebius recognizes that Babylon did have a 70 year fulfillment due to her, which began with her first victories of rival foes, Assyrian and Egypt after, in 609 BC at Charchemish and ending in 539 BC with a fall to Cyrus.

This understanding shows a chronological awareness of these prophecies at this time of Eusebius. We will say circa 300 AD. I doubt that many at that time had another opinion of this matter. I'll keep my ears open and eyes peeled for more on this, if I come across anything. Eusebius was highly respected and did represent the mainstream of Christian thought at this time. That says a lot, both ways.


But it does not end there. Carl Olof Jonsson is well known for his research and articles dealing with this time period in the circle of the Society of Interdisciplinary Studies (SIS)( ), based out of England, who are proponents of the work of Immanuel Velikovsky deaing with physics, astronomy, and chronology. While I do not think much of his chronological work, his theories on catastrophism, physics and astronomy are excellent. To quote them from their site: "The oldest and most up to date society for catastrophist information and research." And if you are a Christian, then Catastrophism is far more credible than the theory of Gradualism, which ignores the catastrophies of the Bible such as the flood.

Many SIS members are busy trying to rewrite history. But Mr. Jonsson had something to say about it all. It turns out that there are astronomical dates and observances made and linked to Babylonian and Persian kings. And to add great weight and credibility to that, there are discovered hundreds, maybe several thousand clay tablets (can't recall of the top of my head) for every transaction made during the reigns of these many kings, easily verifying the length of each king, and even showing the day in some cases, where a king died or changed. These 2 means of verification solidly place the time and length of reigns of the Babylonians and Persian kings. In fact, because of this wealth of data, this might be one of the most vouched for time periods in all of world history. Much more reliable than many times in Roman history near 1 AD.

This evidence clearly shows 50 years for Israel and 70 for Babylon as supreme among the nations. The problem, it turns out, was in the interpretation of prophecy, not the calculation of time. Jerusalem fell in 587 BC and Babylon fell in 539 BC, 48 years later. 

AS a side point, I recommend checking out the SIS site. There is some great science to be found there. They tend to distrust mainstream academic science and challenge it quite often. Well worth the trip. I bought an early version of their CD of collected works and subscribed for a few years to their magazine till I fell on harder times. I still keep in touch with them. Their best stuff involves Catastrophism and the "New" laws of physics and the Electrical Universe and Plasma physics and science. Some good geology, too. A "must see and know" thing!


One can also read the account of Josephus on the matter of 50 years of desolation, not 70:
Flavius Josephus - Against Apion – Book 1, chap. 21

Josephus says that the temple of Jerusalem was desolate (state of obscurity) for 50 years. He then shows the Phoenician’s chronology also shows nearly the same amount of time to the end of Babylon by Cyrus. As well, he notes that the Chaldean chronology also shows 50 years for Judah/Jerusalem. This was the understanding of all Jews in regard to Jeremiah 25. They understood the 70 years as applying to Babylon, not Judah.

Only modern 19th century prophecy interpreters of various passages of Daniel make the error of giving the full 70 to Judah. To do this, they must change the date of Jerusalem’s fall from 587 BC to 607 BC. This lands them in 1914, which was the year that WWI started. They think that sufficient to indicate Christ’s return. But if 587 BC is correct, then 7 times would place them at 1934, not 1914. Nothing in particular happened that year.

Their biggest error was ignoring the many “witnesses” in favor of the well supported chronologies and times, as well as the proper interpretation of Jeremiah 25,with 70 going to Babylon. Daniel’s concise rephrasing of Jeremiah has misled some, but this is not the fault of Daniel but of those who do not pay more careful attention to their methods of inquiry and fact finding.

The evidence is overwhelming. But there are still adherents of this silly idea of adding an extra 20 years of desolation to Jerusalem as they feel 1914 is vital and essential to their core doctrines and justification for their claims. Charles Taze Russell and his International Bible Students Association cling to 1914. Their off-shoot, Jehovah's Witnesses (so called), who say Jesus came back in 1914 and appointed them over all his belongings. E Raymond Capt also clings to this 2520 years of 7 times to 1914. He, too, is a religious Zionist, like Russell. 7th Day Adventists also use some form of Miller's original work to justify their claims as well. But solid data and facts refute them all and ruin their justification. Glad they made it so easy.

Foreign Connections
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The Bible is relatively silent not long after Israel is resettled with Nehemiah and Ezra leading the nation. Things only pick up again when the Messiah Jesus appears. So for this period between the resettlement and the advent of Jesus, we have to rely on secular and non-canonical sources such as Josephus, chroniclers and historians of the various ruling powers, or the Talmud for accounts of what happened between those 2 events for about 450 years. There is one prophecy that many Christians rely on in Daniel for some dating of this time period concerning the arrival of the Messiah. We will address that. We also need to go back and address the kings of Egypt and Assyria who come into contact with Judah and Israel to help establish an agreeable chronology if one exists. We can at least expose where disagreements may exist. That should complete our examination of Bible Chronology.

First, in 1Kings 14:25, Shishak attacks Rehoboam and Jerusalem in year 5 of Rehoboam. This would be 1378 AF: 976 BC.

In 2Kings 15:19, Pul of Assyria comes to Israel sometime during the reign of Menahem and Menahem buys him off. Menahem only rules for 10 years so we can only pin down a range of 10 years as to when this happened. Menahem begins his rule in the 39th year of Azariah/Uzziah which would be 1583 AF: 771 BC. I suspect Pul was bought off early in Manahem's reign so it would be closer to 770 BC.

In 2Kings 15:29, Tiglathpileser of Assyria comes in the days of Pekah and takes among other cities, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, and carries them into exile. This was likely due to Ahaz paying Tiglathpileser to attack so it was likely early in Pekah's reign, maybe the 2nd or 3rd year of his reign, 1612/3 AF: 742/1 BC.

Rezin king of Syria and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, came up to wage war on Jerusalem, and they besieged Ahaz but could not conquer him.

In 2Kings 16:7, Tiglathpileser aids Ahaz of Judah who is being attacked by Israel and Syria when he ascends to the throne. So it is early in his reign when Tiglathpileser intervenes. It could be Ahaz' 1st or 2nd year which would be 1612/3 AF: 742/1 BC.

Then Hoshea kills Pekah and takes the throne. In 2Kings 17:6, in the 9th year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria (Shalmaneser at first) captured Samaria and led Israel into exile.

We are further enlightened about Shalmaneser in 2Kings 18:9 "In the fourth year of King Hezekiah, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah, king of Israel, Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria and besieged it." Hezekiah's 4th year would have been 1632 AF: 718 BC. 2 Kings 18:10, "and at the end of three years he took it." In the sixth year of Hezekiah, which was the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was taken. 2Kings 18:11, "The king of Assyria carried the Israelites away to Assyria." The 6th year of Hezekiah would be 1634 AF: 720 BC. So the fall of Israel/Samaria would be 720 BC according to the Bible.

In 2Kings 18:13, in the 14th year of Hezekiah, Sennacherib came to Judah. He loses and is killed by his sons. Esarhaddon ascends to Assyria's throne. This would be 1642 AF: 712 BC.

In 2Kings 23:29-34, Pharaoh Neco comes to Josiah in Jerusalem and kills him and puts Josiah's son, Eliakim/Jehoiakim on the throne. That's 1745 AF: 609 BC. Neco was on his way to help Assyria against Babylon. But both would fail against Babylon. And this date of 609 BC is the same, whether you use the Bible's accounting or secular/academic accounting. Assyria fell to Babylon in 609 BC, beginning Babylon's streak of victories and uncontested rule for 70 years. After 70 years, in 539 BC, Babylon falls to Cyrus of Persia, ending Babylon's 70 years of reign and supremacy.

Jeremiah 46:2 "About Egypt. Concerning the army of Pharaoh Neco, king of Egypt, which was by the river Euphrates at Carchemish and which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon defeated in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah." That would be 1741 AF: 605 BC. Known as the battle of Carchemish, this too, is agreed upon by both the Bible and academics.







1Kings 14:25

Shishak attacks Rehoboam





2Kings 15:19

Menahem buys Pul of Assyria





2Kings 15:29

Tiglathpileser attacks Pekah





2Kings 18:9

Shalmaneser attacks Hoshea





2Kings 18:11

Shalmaneser defeats Hoshea





2Kings 18:13

Sennacherib defeated, killed





2Kings 23:29

Neco kills Josiah






Babylon defeats Assyria





Jeremiah 46:2

Nebuchadrezzar defeats Neco





* = earliest possible year


* = earliest possible year. Could be later.

And it should be noted that Jehovah uses Secular dates after He destroys Jerusalem and its throne and Royal Kingly lineage. So we want to be slow to discredit secular dates from this point forward. So this is what we have to get us to the birth of the Messiah, his ministry and death; and the fall of Jerusalem again by the Romans. To understand the chronology of this period, I have written a separate article dealing the various aspects of the life of Jesus and the prophecies concerning him. I plan a more ambitious accounting from Jesus onward as time allows in the future.

3467 AA  Babylon falls to Cyrus of Persia 1811 AF 954 EX -539 BC
3489 AA  Darius of Medo-Persia, 2nd year 1833 AF 976 EX -517 BC
3489 AA  Zechariah 1:12 70 years since fall of Jerusalem 1833 AF 976 EX -517 BC
3561 AA  Artaxerxes 20th year decree to rebuild Jerusalem 1905 AF 1048 EX -445 BC
    474 solar years same number of days as 483 Lunar years            
    -445 to 29 AD amounts to 474 solar years of Dan. 9            
3675 AA Alexander defeats Darius III - Achaemenid Empire - Persia         -331 BC
3683 AA Alexander Dies His 4 generals divide his empire         -323 BC
3742 AA Rome begins 1st  Punic war with Carthage         -264 BC
3765 AA   1st Punic war ends         -241 BC
3798 AA Tree Rings indicate a  Major Climate Disturbance         -208 BC
3804 AA Rome defeats Carthage in 2nd Punic War         -202 BC
3841 AA   Temple Rededicated by Maccabees          -165 BC
3860 AA  Rome destroys Carthage completely in 3rd Punic War         -146 BC
4004 AA  John the Baptist born in Spring 2 BC 2348 AF 1491 EX -2 BC
4004 AA  Jesus born in Fall 2 BC 2348 AF 1491 EX -2 BC
4034 AA  Jesus Baptized AD 29, 15th Year of Tiberius 2378 AF 1521 EX 29 AD
4034 AA  -445 BC to 29 AD fulfills Dan. 9's 69 Weeks of years 2378 AF 1521 EX 29 AD
4038 AA  Jesus Crucified, 19th Year of Tiberius 2282 AF 1525 EX 33 AD
4075 AA  Titus / Rome Conquers Jerusalem 2319 AF 1562 EX 70 AD

My Chronology vs Others     (Beware!)        Aug 8, 2013
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Beware of Imitators and Wanna-bees!

I watch the net for other Bible Chronologies, seeing what others have to say. And there are some real dillies out there. Most screw up chronologies, due to trying to justify particular prophetic interpretations, that are not even justified. Here are some things you will want to consider when viewing other chronologies.

1. References always!        You will note my careful quoting of scriptural references on which dates are based, as well as careful explanations and methods applied. You should be able to know exactly why I chose each and every date or calculation. This is for your benefit so you can have reason to either accept it or in going over the figures yourself, you can see where I might have gone wrong.

Take a real good look at the many chronologies now out there. I was the first and only one out there in 2000 AD. Now there are numerous competing chronologies, but almost none account for their dates in any detail. Floyd Nolan Jones supplies all his detail as I do. He has a worthy work. James Ussher also has an admirable work. Most do not come any where near us. You deserve better than them. If they do not have references then it is not likely they are legitimate or care about giving you fully informed info. In fact, they may not want you to critically examine their work, for fear you may find the holes in their figures.

2. Harmonization        I will make a big brag here, unbecoming or not. But it is important. If one makes certain calculations and picks certain dates and they do not harmonize with the whole chronology as well as all its parts and pieces, then it is not well done. God is perfect and He has left it for us to find the solutions. They are possible to find. For instance, the chronologies of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah should match up. I have found none, bar myself or Jones, that have managed this accomplishment. Shame on them.

Another example would be the 70 weeks of Daniel 9 which lead up to the introduction of the Messiah. This amounts to 7 (days) times 69 weeks of "years." This amounts to 483 lunar years or 476 solar years. That number has to match up with the Baptism of Jesus, which was duly noted with 4 political references. God would not be so stupid as to give references that would not match up. Foremost among those is the year of Tiberius Caesar. This should give us dates which will also harmonize with all other events and time periods. That means that the date of Jesus birth, baptism, and death should all match the references of Luke, Dan. 9, and whether Jesus rose on the 3rd day or rather on the 4th, after a full 3 days and 3 nights.

Example: If we choose 4 BC, which some do to harmonize with a lunar half eclipse near to Herod's death, though the Bible does not require or mention Herod as a sign. Josephus does. 483 lunar years demands the fall of 2 BC for the birth of Jesus, subtracting 30 years from baptism in 29 AD. So if one picks 4 BC, one will be in conflict with Baptism dates. Then there is the matter of whether Jesus died on a Wednesday or a Friday, harmonizing with either a full 3 24 hour periods and beyond that by a few minutes or hours to rise on Sunday (Wed. scenario); or rose on the 3rd day, died on Friday scenario.

There are at best, 2 dates one can choose for either date. They must harmonize with The year of Tiberius required by Luke by the spirit of God. Again, this only allows 29 AD, with death in 33 AD and birth in the fall of 2 BC, nearly making it 1 BC. By the way, There was a full lunar eclipse just before Herod died, and this actually does fit the 2 BC- 29 AD - 33 AD scenario, though the bible does not require the Josephus reference but it seems to work, as a 2nd witness.

Many choose a 4 BC birth while not accounting for all the other dependent dates that are slighted by that poor choice. Nor have they been able to explain how the original dating of 1 BC - 1 AD came about to be 4 years off from before 1 AD. Its only off by 1 year and 3 months under our calendar of today. 1 year can be accounted for or accepted. 4 years is way beyond any explanation.

Those who choose the 4th day, like Jehovah's so called Witnesses, can not match this year with the 15th year of Tiberius, which does link together with Dan. 9. My date also harmonizes with the observation of a full eclipse near to Herod's death. My date fulfills all these events linking together. JWs and many others do not bother or care about harmonization. There are many details and only I make them all harmonize. You should accept nothing less.

Many groups of the mid to late 1800s, called the "Great Awakening" here in the USA at that time, got all caught up in interpreting all sorts of dates for the 1260, 1290, 1335, 2300 and supposedly even 2520 years, of Daniel. None of these fit or merit a day for a year conversion given by Ezekiel 4. They lead to lots of dead ends and wasted time. Charles Russell, Ellen White, these 2 love those many dates. Modern day Bible Students, the followers of Charles Russell, have carried on his false chronology which will likely be an attempt to get people to follow the antichrist as if he truly were Jesus.

3. Science Harmonization           And history, too, where possible.     Not one other soul at this time (2013) can offer scientific evidence for the flood, including precise scientific dating for events and circumstances that perfectly match the flood in dating, compared with the Bible. Where history can be accurately determined, it should be able to harmonize with the Bible and it does, for my work. If it does not, there should be clear reason why one or the other is out of whack. For instance, I pick Akhenaten as the pharaoh to oppose Moses. But Moses leads Israel out of Egypt in 1493 BC. Akhenaten is dated near to 1350 BC. There is a discrepancy of 143 years there. But, the 20th dynasty of Egypt was a nightmare for which there is no real solid accounting, and an almost certain dark period of unaccounted time.

Manfred Beitak found that the dating of the Mt. Thera explosion which left pumice and ash in Egypt's early 18th dynasty, near to Thutmosis III or earlier, using the more reliable dendro-chronology (tree-ring dating) date of 1628 BC, to be about 150 years further back in time, than Egyptologists have reckoned by radiocarbon 14 dating and traditional datings of reigns of Pharaohs and King lists. So I remain within the range allowed by the 1628 BC date, since we can not be sure of exactly who was reigning when Thera left evidence in Egypt.

But to pick a pharaoh and come up with a date that harmonizes and fits all the evidence. No one else has even tried or dared to. Its not important to them. They can't do it anyway and if they can, lets see it! But an event as big and impossible to ignore as the Exodus would have been, deserves an answer and good one, too.

Serious students of Bible history and events as well as historical accounts, should be able to find some harmony in these, even as God harmonizes all things together. You should accept nothing less! So have a good look around at other chronologies and you will see what I mean. These are all imposters trying to fool and mislead you and, most of all, keep you away from my site, which they fear more than death ;-)

While you are at it, write them, if they even bother to leave a place/address to write, and ask them to account and harmonize. They can't and won't. They know what that will lead to. That's right. You'll end right up at There is no other chronology that harmonizes in so much detail.

Most can't harmonize and do not want to bother. For instance, JWs say that Judah was abandoned in 607 BC, rather than the astronomically verifiable historical date of 588/587/586 date, which depends on what you assume from the Bible. JW's 607 fails on so many grounds. It does not harmonize with Jeremiah's 70 years for Babylon, not Judah. It does not harmonize with historical dates and invalidates Jeremiah's 70 years for Babylon, which begins with Babylon conquering Assyria and Egypt in 609 BC and then Babylon falling in 539 BC to Cyrus the Persian.

The JW date for the flood then gets pushed back 20 years, but they do not try to harmonize the date of the flood, anyway, but they should. I did it. Why not them? Most Bible Chronologies are a joke, motivated by some stupid agenda, and warped twisted interpretations of prophecy. You deserve better than that. If you are reading this, then you are in the right place, already. Good for you! I welcome all questions and challenges.

Some Comparison Examples
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Dr. Floyd Nolen Jones states in his book on Bible chronology on page 21:

"It will be noted that the goal is that of “standard” chronology, not an “absolute” chronology. As Scripture normally records only entire years for a given event and not the days and months, summing the years may yield an inaccurate total because the partial years were not included. After 12 years of examining numerous arguments, day placements, renal data, ancients versions, Royal annals, eclipse calculations, etc., this researcher has concluded that any such assignment is not realistic of any chronology of prolonged duration.1 Even the serious notion of an absolute chronology stretches credulity and borders on the ludicrous. The critical secular dates at a few points of synchronization have simply never been established."

I agree with Jones that Bible chronology has to be held suspect for a few years. But I do not agree that we can not come very close. The laws of averages and distribution suggest that of the many months not totaled and recorded, they will average out fairly close to 50% of each, leaving us with a figure close to reality and accuracy.

That is to say, when a king is assigned a number of years, it is not likely that it is precisely the number given. One becomes a king at some point in the year, and dies at some time in year. Whether he started 3 months into year, or died 7 months into a year is apt to be rounded in many cases. With 23 kings, there is apt to be a few months short or over. If enough were over estimated in rounding to a year, my chronology would be inflated. If underestimated, my chronology might not go back as far as it should. With 23 kings, one would expect that it would be likely that the overs and unders would come close to evening out. But if there was a difference of say 5 either over or under, I could be several years off.

As well, since we deal with Julian/Gregorian calendars that begin in January, and since the Judean calendar began in the spring and varied some in the time of the spring, we also have chances for variance between 2 different calendars. Other nations like Babylon, Persia, or Greece may have other calendars, too. Noah's birthday was used to secure an anchor in time as he was in the 2nd month on the 17th, of his 600th year when the flood began. It is an instance where we use years, but also realize that there is a month and 17 days beyond 599 full completed years of Noah's age to date the flood and push the previous forefathers further back into time. I used 600 since it would be easy to confirm for anyone checking my work and trying to follow it. But technically, 599 and 1 month and 17 days of Noah start the flood, not 600. And the water are all dried up in Genesis 8:14, when Noah is 600, 1 month, and 27 days old. Yes, he is into his 601st year, as the scripture says. Keeping track of months is far too tedious and not even possible in most instances.

My goal has always been to make Chronology as easy to follow and understand as is possible so that as many as possible might try to comprehend it. Tree ring records might provide a good check and balance. I am at least 1 year over, and 1 month, and 27 days under by my simplification. There are several other places like that. I used 480 years for what was called the 480th year since the Exodus to Solomon's dedication of the temple. I am months over on that one.

My chronology will not be far off with just 3 or 4 such indiscretions. The 69 weeks of years still fits and works as does the birth, baptism, and death of Jesus. My current Chronology says 2350 BC for the flood and Tree Rings seem to indicate 2354 BC. We differ by 4 years. That is a good indication for both parties that they can come so close.

As well, the Bible does give us anchor events that bridge certain gaps. Let me say this about Jones and Ussher. Both do excellent work and Jones is very careful to document each choice and reason for that choice so that we can know easily and accurately how he arrives at what he does. This is the foremost obligation of any Chronologist.

But I am going to pick a few faults with Jones and Ussher’s choices a few key areas. Chronology is not just about number and periods of time. It is about harmonization and some Bible requirements place constraints on us that we can not ignore and perhaps some of those were ignored.

Another problem is that Ussher did not have the benefits of Dendro-chronology (tree-ring dating) and Radiocarbon dating, and maybe even some more archives discovered or translated after Ussher.  But Jones does have all those available and perhaps he has just not cast his net wide enough and has not expanded his research into secular areas to see how they might agree or differ.

I have attempted to involve tree ring records, Carbon 14 data, Astronomy, Archaeology, and anything else I can get my hands on. I believe these can help verify some gray areas and close the gap between secular and Bible sources to just a few years at most. The end product is a more reliable and certain Chronology.

I want to show some key choices made by Ussher and Jones to demonstrate short-comings in their choices, ignoring the harmonization factor.

I am going to pick some particular dates from Jones and Ussher to compare with mine. In Jones' book on Chronology, pg. 259-260 are a discussion of major events in the Bible Comparing Ussher-1654, Greswell-1830, and Jones-2004. I am going to add mine in, too.

All 3 before me set the birth of Adam at 4004 BC whereas I have 4006 BC; and their flood at 2348 BC whereas I have 2350. Given the span of 6000 years here, that I differ only by 2 is a good thing for them and me. But of concern is places where they do wrong and which mean other places might be in conflict as well.

All 3 pick 70 years of servitude as belonging to Judah, and not to Babylon as Jeremiah has given them to. So they have Judah needing 70 years of deportation whereas it was only 50. Zechariah has a verse that shows it is 20 years later after their return that Judah had then been without a rebuilt wall for 70 years. 607 BC should have been 587 BC. All serious scholars list 587 or 586 BC, for the most part. Babylon conquered Assyria and Egypt in 609 BC and then were conquered themselves by the Persians in 539 BC, giving Babylon 70 years of ruling the nations.

Now for the super big glaring error, a bit shameful one at that, if you ask me. All 3 choose 4 BC as the birth of Christ. They all use the death of Herod, supposedly 4 BC, as the birth of Christ. But the Bible does not specify Herod's death as being the means to determine Jesus' birth. For one, I believe Herod died in very early 1 BC. Jesus was born 2 or 3 months prior to that in 2 BC. Instead, the Bible specifies the year and season of Jesus' baptism as the 15th year of Tiberius, and that is 29 AD if you do it correctly. See my article on the Timelines of Jesus for details on that.

What this amounts to is that they ignore the Bible and substitute with Josephus instead. But Josephus never said Herod died in 4 BC. He said there was an eclipse of the moon when Herod died. The 4 BC eclipse was only partial. The 1 BC Eclipse was full and the correct one. It was also noted that Irenaeus (180 AD) said Jesus was born in the 41st year of Augustus. The Bible does not specify that. It lists the 15th of Tiberius, which is 29 AD and if we subtract Jesus being 30 (in the fall) from that at that time, we end up at Fall, 2 BC, after which Herod dies in about January of 1 BC.

Ussher indicated that 3.5 years after baptism lands Jesus death in the19th year of Tiberius, which is correct. That is 33AD. Problem is that he has 27 AD as the Batptism year, given the 4 BC birth. But he then selects 33 AD for Jesus' death, because he knows that is the only year that this was even possible, if Jesus died on a Friday and rose on the 3rd day, Sunday. But that means Ussher allows Jesus' ministry to be 5.5 years rather than 3.5 years. William Whiston and Sir Isaac Newton both did this, too. Ussher, Whiston, and Newton were all contemporaries of the time, the 1600s.

Greswell and Jones select 27 AD for the baptism, but only allow for a 3.5 years ministry so they place his death at 30 AD, making Jesus death not possible on a Friday, and rising on Sunday, the first day of the week. As well, if we are to harmonize the 69 weeks of years with the decree of Artaxerxes in his 20th year to bring us to the baptism of Jesus, then we must choose 2 BC for birth and 29 AD for baptism and then the Messiah is cut off at the half week, 3.5 "days" amounting to 3.5 years of preaching before he dies.

The result is that Ussher, Whiston, and Newton all fail to observe the 3.5 years (half a week of years), as well as the birth of Jesus as 2 BC, I suspect. They fall for the wrong eclipse to be the death of Herod not too long after the birth of Jesus.

Jones & Greswell admit the 3.5 years of preaching, but still chooses a false eclipse rather than the true 15th year of Tiberius ands counting backwards. They blow the year of Baptism, death, and fall out of harmony with the 69 weeks of years from the 20th year of Artaxerxes, which is fulfilled at 29 AD. How bout dat, huh? I trumped Sir Isaac Newton, and all the rest, too. Because I knew all the events and years had to connect together properly or otherwise an error would be indicated.

So they held some doctrinal errors. So yes, doctrine is a vitally important part of Bible Chronology. Always had been and always will be. In fact, doctrine is a huge part of prophetic doctrine as well. It is pretty much impossible to get prophecy right without the right Chronology; and likewise, that you have to get Chronology right in order to get prophecy to come out correct in all aspects. You can not have one without the other.

But to the credit of Jones and Ussher, at least, their documentation is complete so that errors can be detected and corrected by others. You will find most chronologies do not list most of their references of the Bible or otherwise explain why they made the selections they did for years and dates.

In addition, I have found tree ring dating to be very useful and interesting. This aspect is a work still in progress and I will get it up in time, God willing. Meanwhile, you have the very best chronology in the world today, right here at Truth1.

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An Overview of Biblical Chronology - Tells how the Timeline is figured for Bible Chronology in a concise overview - From Adam to Jerusalem's fall in 70 AD.
The Chronology of the Judges Period - This period is confusing but it is very understandable once you know the secrets. I got'em!
Biblical Chronology of the Kings - of both the Judean and Israelite kings together, resolving all problems and gaps!
Timelines of Jesus   -  The 483 years - 69/70 weeks of Daniel 9 to the birth, baptism, crucifixion, and resurrection with scriptures supplied.
A Detailed Chronology of the Bible - This covers every little detail along the way, so one can get a perspective of time as well as flow of events. Its a great way to become acquainted with the scriptures very quickly and gain a great oversight of the purpose of God, which is why its linked on this page.
Major Climate Impacts     Based on Secular dates and other considerations. These allow an intersection of certain Bible dates with certain and fairly reliable secular dates thru dendrochronology (tree-ring dating). Only here at Truth 1 !!!

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