Created  Dec 13, 2014      published Jul 30, 2015         Updated Mar 7, 2017                              004  720

Major Climate Impacts


Sub-headings:
The Premise
Egyptian Chronology Considerations
2017 State of Affairs for Dating-Chronology Mar 7 017
The Thing About Climates is . . .
2354-2345 BC
The Mesopotamian Region
Clube, Napier, and Baillie
Mt. Thera Eruption 1628 BC
1159 BC & the 1200 BC- 800 BC Dark Age
208 BC

Related Articles


The Premise
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Major Climate Impacts show up in assembled tree ring patterns of substantial collections of wood recovered in various places around the world. Major climatic upturns or downturns, particularly downturns, cooling patterns, have only 2 real causes. Huge volcanic explosions or extraterrestrial projectiles such as comets, meteors, and asteroids. There are 5 well noted impacts in the tree ring records of the last 5,000 years. These 5 impacts give us some solid dates that we can try to connect with specific times in the history of man and his activities.

Most chronologies such as kings lists have little to nothing to connect them with certain reliable dated events. Many kings lists or time periods have what are called floating chronologies. We may have a fair amount of confidence in a particular lineage, but can not say for sure what happened before or after that lineage of time. The 5 dates of the tree ring records may help to tie down the greater time frames that would link up pieces of "lineage" in the affairs of man.

The only other reliable precise dating belongs to astronomy. If we can be sure of certain astronomic observations, we can obtain exact dates as to when those observations were made. These also help to pin point particular political lineages or other such records of man's affairs.

This is my hope, that in placing these 5 noted climate impacts along with a few astronomical observations, that we can form a better picture of the complete chronology of the last 6,000 years. The Bible is like no other book in that in contains one of the most long spanning chronologies in existence. If there ends up being an agreement between Bible records and tree ring records and astronomical observations, then we have some very impressive links in time. It also lends a credibility to the Bible that some would resent, having a natural antagonism toward the Bible. But for those of faith in the Bible, such links are to be celebrated.

These periods are as follows:
2354-2345 B.C.
1628-1623 B.C.
1159-1141 B.C.
    208-204 B.C.

    536-545 A.D.
I reduce this to the starting points for this was when those events began.
2354 BC,  for 9 years
1628 BC,  for 5 years
1159 BC,  for 9 years
  208 BC,  for 4 years

  536 AD,  for 9 years

I added a space for the transition from BC to AD to give everyone a heads up alert. I placed 208 BC on my Bible Chronology, but it seems rather useless at identifying anything around that time. I'll have more info on that in the 208 BC chapter/section.


Egyptian Chronology Considerations
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This is the Elephant in the room, the red headed step child. We have to talk about it.

The Phoenicians get the credit for the alphabet and written language because the earliest evidence discovered and dated belongs to the Phoenicians. 
But 1 or 2 pieces of evidence hardly qualifies as uncontestable. It is the earliest evidence discovered or which survived, but not the earliest lost, necessarily. But we do have evidence in the Egyptian mines in the Sinai region that have an older existence, it would appear, and very similar to the other scripts.

But for sure, Israel has the most impressive amount of recording, continually copied/refreshed, in all of history. The history of the Mediterranean and all around it, is quite vague as far as written records and monuments, before 1200 BC. Even today, the best methods for records and dating are cultural remains excavated in mounds and similar, and dating by association renders chronologies that do not harmonize well.

Since all Israel and the Temple priesthood revolved around writing and recording, at a time when stone was often used or clay, that Israel just might be the true originator of the written alphabet. She was neighbors with Canaan, of whom Tyre and Sidon (both Phoenicians) were descendants of, and the Greeks who were mixed among/along with the Phoenicians in the Mediterranean Sea. So anyone one of them could have been the author, but Israel has the written tradition that the other 2, do not have. FACT.

The fact is that the Bible offers the best insight into those primitive early years of civilization, say from about 2400-1200 BC. A Bible chronology identifies the flood as happening at 2350 BC and the Exodus near to 1500 BC. The Bible does cover the span from 1500 BC to the Kings of Israel and Judah. Most secular histories show little to nothing from 1200 BC to 800 BC. Egypt was pretty uncontested from Rameses II to its fall during Babylon's rise to power at Carchemish, along with Assyria's fall as well. We have some inscriptions and remains from Assyria I but not much in detailed records. Assyria II has much more.

The 1200 BC to 800 BC time is known as a Dark Age. There seems to be no cultural changes between those 2 dates, according to Academia. In comparison with these, The Bible, a history of Israel, among other things, presents a continual narrative throughout that time. Egypt, for example, has an entire Dynasty (the 20th dynasty)  where order and record keeping went to hell. After Rameses III, the list has 8 Pharaohs spanning 1163 BC - 1070 BC* accounting for 93 years for the 20th dynasty, a very short period for a "dynasty." it was a period of chaos when many tombs of the previous pharaohs were broking into and robbed. The desecrated tombs and mummies were rescued by the 21st dynasty priests and put into one good size tomb.  *From the "Atlas of Ancient Egypt" pg. 36, Baines and Malek.

It is well within possibility that there were periods where the was no central rule and each town was its own kingdom with no records recorded. Oddly, Bible Chronology going backwards from the battle of  Carchemish in 609 BC to the 20th dynasty of Egypt ending, they say, at 1070 BC. That is in the middle of the reign of King Saul, the first king of Israel and at the end of the period of the Judges in the Bible. The 19th and 18th dynasties are too young if my identification of Akhenaten as the king of Egypt to die at the hand of God/Moses is right, then the 1350 date for Akhenaten and the ~1500 date for Moses and the passover and Pharaoh being defeated are off by 140 years.

Many radiocarbon dates such as the explosion of Mt. Thera are significantly older than the cultural associations indicate. Tree Ring dating says far older than the radiocarbon dates do. Same for some Egyptian dates as is covered in "Centuries of Darkness," Peter James 1993. I will deal with Egypt more later in this article. I want to cover the Bible account of the Exodus now.

The very honesty plain truth is that Academia, particularly with Egyptologists, are as I see it, a bit dishonest. Their adherence to sound methods of determining the reliability of history and recorded dates and estimated dates are dismal at best. Peter James shows this well in his "Centuries of Darknes 1993). The UK non-profit Society for Inter-Disciplinary Studies, (SIS), a group who is not pleased with job of Academia and also proponents of Immanuel Velikovsky's revisions and theory of the Electrical Universe, have pointed out the total lack  of sound procedure and absence of following the Scientific Method among chronologists who account for most all dates based on cultural associations all the surrounding nations around Egypt, and using Egypt's kings lists recorded by various ancient sources and from monuments.

First off, the monuments of the Egyptians were authorized by the Pharaohs/government. Have you ever known a government to be honest? 2nd, many varying ancient sources have widely different accountings of who rules and for how long and when, when added together. Some lists do not mention some pharaohs. Some use different names hard to identify at times. Some add more names. The number are off from each other. The only truly verifiable date is the Battle of Carchemish in 609 BC, that includes the participation of Judah, Egypt, Assyrian, and Babylon, with Babylon gaining victories over Assyria and then Egypt. The later Ptolemy's of Egypt would then supply the best records, perhaps.

Now if you had a court case and had 10 witnesses and every one of them had widely different stories, with no two alike, you would have no trial. Especially if they had lots of disagreement with each variance. Yet, we have just that for Egyptian chronology. And we have no agreement with carbon 14 measurements. No tree-ring dates, except with the 1628 BC explosion (a horrific one for sure) leaving pumice in the early 18th dynasty and for Egypt, and no certain associations with astronomical observances.

Despite that, the Union of Egyptologists remain dogmatic in their defense of their Chronology. No science allowed!

Oddly, the Bible happens to have a historical narrative running thru it and some interesting historical intersections with other nations and periods and some very interesting relationship with certain Tree ring dates. The fact it has a continuous historical accounting with verifiable checks with other time period internal accountings, should at least cause it to be an additional reference source to consider for those who make chronologies. They want noting to do with it. Of course, we are talking about a circle and network of professionals steeped in prejudice and hatred of The bible and religion and promote Atheism and Evolution. So their attitudes are hardly professional, academic, or scientific. They are very much in harmony with leftist cultural Marxism and Communism.

But what I will do in this article, is give you the reader, a chance to consider a lot of evidence that the leftist radicals have tried to keep from you. And when I show the material remains and sites from around the regions involved, you might even be impressed.

When we discuss any Tree ring dates or dating in general, we will  be automatically rejected by the Egyptologists' coalition/party. And worse, to suggest that just maybe, their chronology ain't worth a powder blown to hell and does not confirm to any reasonable independent dating method such as Dendrochronology, or Carbon 14 dating. I grant that carbon 14 is not perfect, but it does seem to have more reliability than lying historians who work for the Pharaonic governments of the past. This will become a major issue when I deal with the 1159 BC Climate disruption.


2017 State of Affairs for Dating-Chronology            March 7, 2017
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You want the truth? You can't handle the truth! Having reviewed some articles written by prominent academics like Manfred Bietak and other peers, I got a sense of more chaos and uncertainty then ever before. In fact, I would suggest this was and is to be expected. Why? Because the real truth is that there is little that can be said or verified over the span of human history. Verification should have among the following for certainty to be had.

Astronomy is an ideal means to rely on, due to its precision. Provided that the observation was made and recorded faithfully, it should be respected. The fear or reality is that anyone could claim they observed certain alignments and that at this time such and such happened. The alignments  might be accurate but copied from another time when the observation was made. Or it may also be that earthly precession might cause a king or nation to reset their calendar to maintain certain months in a certain season, say winter.

In the NE of the USA, January is the typical month for the coldest winter temperatures. but as precession's wobble moves along after say, 2,000 years, the winter solstice of the 25th becomes the 21st in 2017. The solstice moved by 4 days. After 10,000 years, we would be 20 days different from the 25th. 15,000, 1 month off. 90,000 years and we would be 6 months off, with the shortest day being about June 25. We have no accounting much further back than 6000 years if not much less for astronomical time. Most Egyptian temples aligned with the sun, only show mild changes in temple alignments to account for maybe 2 or 3 thousand years.

So what is the 2nd best option for precision and accuracy? Seriously? It is recorded history. Yes, seriously! The problem is that men, priests, and governments can lie or change/edit copies of accounts to hide or deny history that some want forgotten. Any history is better than no history. But if an account sounds suspicious, then there could be good reason to maintain some skepticism or caution.

But particularly for dating, such as the succession of kings or presidents or family lines of succession, a written history can be a very precise history, if their culture is to keep records, life-spans/ages, and if those also are accompanied by another means of dating/time keeping, such as a calendar and year, then the life-spans can be added and compared the calendar months, days and years. Same for the reigns of kings.

Our biggest problem in dating human history is that we have very few intact, reliable, well numbered spans that are fit into longer running spans of time. For example, Egypt's 20th dynasty. There is some accounting of kings and their dates of reign. But this dynasty also broke down into chaos and tombs were looted and damaged. All order seemed disintegrate and this was not the only time this happened in Egypt's history. Could kings have lost power and little sub-kingdoms develop with no written records kept?

Keep in mind that in order to keep a kingdom in power and order, one must maintain enforcement of rules and order. Let that break down and every little tyrant will seek his own little kingdom, like running a town and controlling it, and defending it. Did the 20th dynasty suffer a total power vacuum? I believe it did. What would prove it? If there were another region of Egypt or neighboring nation that has more time accounted for, than its neighbor. Why missing time? Perhaps because of missing order and missing records due to the break down of order, which means bureaucracies are no longer getting paid and they all go home or join a gang, or syndicate, so to speak.

It is silly to think that order can not break down when we have ample evidence for many breakdowns of nations, empires and regions. Wars destroy order, and governmental bureaucracies. Famine can do it, too. Natural disasters can also do it. Even plagues and disease can do it.

What are the signs of a good reliable written record?

It will have a good deal of information around accountings of time, whether calendars, reigns of kings or lines of family descent with births, ages at death, that are continuous or account in time for interruptions of time. Maybe even checks and balances such as a long period of time connected to various events such as wars. earthquakes, tsunamis, climate disruptions, famines, disease plagues, that would be memorable beyond one lifetime.

These types of occurrences help to add credibility and possible even be verified by other nations or peoples. Individual people with attached ages in a flow of a time, give us time increments of real distinction. If a person of 50 years noted an earth quake when he was 30 or that an eclipse took place near to him being 30, these could b used for verification and a more precise accounting of time.

The problem is most nations and empires come and go. If one wanted to carry on record keeping, including time and events of the people/nation/empire, you would need a stable empire or nation in order to maintain a bureaucracy that would record time and events. Most empires do not last all that long and their records often do not survive if they fall to another empire. In the case of Egypt, she had breakdowns in order and collapsed into what are known as intermediate periods.

During these times, record keeping often ceases or is incomplete. What we are sometimes left with are material remains of a culture that ceased. This has possible value but not always and not always with precision in time anchors with time indicators such as a recorded date or carbon for dating.

The Real Truth

Those trying to put together an adequate Bronze Age Chronology that addresses a number of problems that leave a Bronze Age accounting badly lacking, truth be told, don't have the slightest thing to grab onto or link to. They do not like the Mt. Thera tree ring deposit that says 1628 BC. Egyptian Chronology is a mess. Too many Pharaohs stealing each other's years and rewriting history and too many gaps. Now where is this more clear than in the 2nd Intermediate period where 4-5 dynasties 13-17, rule for some amount of time in the Delta region between the 12th and 18th dynasties. Some might have been around longer than others. But no one knows anything for certain there.

There are no distinct and consistent findings that harmonized without confusion and lack of harmony in dating and even material culture as their timing/dating. Too much disruption throughout the whole region. Its like looking for a needle in a haystack. A whole region becoming chaotic is really pretty beyond the reach of any good researcher or academic. It would be unreasonable to expect that anything could be solved . . .  unless . . . 

Unless a miracle happened. Well, one sort of did. If you can dare entertain it. Moses wrote an accounting of time after leaving Egypt and encamped at Mt. Sinai (Jebel el-Lawz) in now Saudi Arabia. Evidence of it is still there. Evidence lasts a long time in a desert that few visit. Moses was instructed by God, as the story goes (and which I believe). One could speculate that Joseph, the right hand of Amenemhet III, could have had things recorded and kept, in Egyptian records or made and kept by someone among the people of Israel/Jacob, likely one of Joseph's two sons and their descendents.

There is no record of such ever mentioned. But Moses for sure. but what remains is that the biggest event in tree-ring records is dated near to 2349 BC. And the Bible flood (a huge climatic event) dates to 2350 BC. this being a long term anchor. And the Bible genealogy can begin a count from there to the event of Jesus beginning his ministry upon his Baptism at age 30. God cast Israel/Judah off and switched to secular dating thru kings of the empires of that region.

It may be that God foresaw more accuracy in that route, since His own people had become corrupt and that secular account would be adequately reliable for dating after Judah's fall to Babylon in 587 BC.

But what makes Bible time accounting so unique are its checks and balances. As an example, The date of the Exodus was known at the dedication of the temple in Jerusalem in the 4th year of Solomon, being the 480th year since the Exodus. As regards record keeping, among the Dead Sea Scrolls there is a document that notes the births of all the descendants of Levi, up to Moses. In the Bible, we only have Levi's birth, his son Kohath not mentioned in the Bible and Amram neither. And Moses' birth, was in Amram's old age at 120. We are not informed of the times of Kohath or Amram, but the Dead Sea scrolls have such a record.

A number of families of Israel appeared to have kept records for posterity, at least in Judah/Jerusalem and those who lived in Qumran making the Dead Sea scrolls have record of it. They have record of a number of interesting things. But it is not out of the realm of possibility that family records were kept, perhaps almost as a religious duty. This would make them unique as a people, culture, and religion. A gift to all mankind if it solves many Chronology problems, which I will try to show is the case.

Now another time period worthy of note in the Bible is the beginning of the period of the Judges. We can work back from year 4 of Solomon And take the years starting with Israel leaving Egypt under Moses and use the accounting of the Judges up to a point of reliability, we have a small gap in which a number of things take place in the days of Samuel. We have events that took place in that small time, but not detail of overlap. But an accounting was being kept in the tent/tabernacle by the priesthood started by Moses, consisting of the tribe of Levi, from which Moses descended.

A third period was veiled in cryptic fashion in Daniel 9, referring to 70 weeks of years.  { chrono-jesus.htm#Daniel 9 - 70 Weeks on this site}

"69 weeks of years" = 69 * 7 = 483 prophetic years of 360 days. Convert those to solar years of 365.2422 and you get 476 solar years, which is standard dating for most civilization and certainly those of Persia and Babylon, thru Rome and onward. The decree was issued:

"The decree issued to build the city of Jerusalem and its wall in the 20th year of Artaxerxes (Neh. 2:1-8, 13, 17)"

That places us in 29 AD for the beginning of Jesus' ministry at age 30 and his death on April 3, 33 AD at age 33.5. This is unique because it requires secular dating, making use of the very reliable astronomical calculations. Who could ask for more?

And since the dating of the Persians and Medes and Babylon were carefully tied to astronomy, These have a certainty of dating just as good as anything we have at present. And Neo-Babylon connects with both Egypt and Assyria at the battle of Carchemish in 609 BC. And Babylon connects directly with the Bible and Jerusalem.

What other Chronology can have such bragging rights? Why pass up or ignore such a valuable record? Why not at least try it out? Test it! No! Academics would prefer blindness and chaos to that. It is a prejudice that is appalling and without good justification. Only Satan could responsible for this.

The Bible, along with strongly identifying circumstances in Egypt, for which Israel is intimately connected to (how convenient, no?) offers some very good possibilities were it not for bigoted minds in Academia that support the Marxist status quo "lets over throw Western Tradition AND Christianity, too" attitude. But from here on it, I will address the Biblical possibilities and show that while history dating were not its primary mission, It is a good historical document that also serves as a good long-term chronological tool as well.

The Bible has lots of narrative to flesh out its dates of accounting. And it give us some of the best insights into the dark mysterious Bronze Age. At the every least, it is worth comparing what tragically little we have, otherwise. Further, the collapse of the Bronze age is much more clear when one considers the Famine of Joseph.

I will cover many Bronze Age issues in my article on Joseph and the famine, and on Moses and the collapse of Akhenaten/Egypt.

Academic dating lacks the precise resolution that is in the Bible. No other society at such an early time, had developed a system of writing and copying and keeping extensive records that the Priesthood of Israel/God did. Israel and it religion was like no other. We a certain parallel in the Irish monks whose devotion to God was making copies of the Bible and other Christian works as well as Old World Classical literature of the Greeks and Latin Romans.

Writing on parchment or papyrus allows much easier copying and making many more copies. Clay tablets have to be fired which takes a lot of wood. Caring in stone is no fun and is slow. Using ink revolutionizes recording and copying. For example, we have the Hattusha who made use of clay tablets for recording and for correspondence. But that system did not allow prolific amounts of recording and a number of people were involved in the making of those fired clay tablets.

Whether you credit God as I do, or just credit Moses or Israel, their alphabet writing/recording system of 1500 BC was superior to anything in existence for the longest time. Neo-Babylon was still using clay from 609 BC - 539 BC. My theory is that Israel was the true creator of the writing system the Phoenicians and Greeks would adopt. All those languages used very similar letter shapes. But only Israel has the volume material to show a greater devotion to records of all types.

For these many reasons, the alphabet and paper/parchment created the gift we now possess, but which Academia casts aside in anger and resentment. But as a consequence, they will never be able to solve the mysteries of the Bronze Age. But God willing, I might be able to do it.


The Thing About Climates is . . .
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Tree ring dating, which is called Dendro-chronology (without the hyphen), depends primarily on outstanding climate events, generally negative ones, cause primarily by Comets or other objects/projectiles like asteroids or meteors; and volcanoes and major earth quakes. Volcanoes and earthquakes leave damage, but to really be noticed, there needs to be serious "outgassing" according to Baillie, who studies climate and tree rings. Volcanoes, if big enough, can eject material and gasses so high that they reach into the stratosphere, which can block out sunlight, make the sky look red, and can alter climates substantially. Then there are comets.

In the 80s and onward, it has begun to be recognized that comets are not mysterious or accidental. They make regular visits to our planet, due to an intersecting orbit with Earth's orbit and the solar system, but on a different plane and angle from the planets of the solar system. So comets can be very periodical and even punctual. But comets do not always affect climate. In fact, sometimes they have little effect.

Comets can upset the climate both by themselves as well as causing earthquakes and volcanic explosions, again according to Ballie and others. Comets can have electrical generating and producing effects, and can alter the stratosphere, either by impact or traveling thru the stratosphere.

But while all these 3 can disrupt the climate, for as much as maybe 10-12 years, though usually slightly less, it is also possible that they may have very little effect on the climate as well. The challenge is first, to find a visible climate disturbance in the tree ring records. There are 5 such events beginning at 2354 BC and the last ending at 545 AD. These will be addressed by me.

The problem is, when you have a climate disturbance in the tree ring record, you don't necessarily know what caused it. It could be a comet, a volcano, or a very large earth quake. It can even be all 3 together. So it is not always easy to identify all the suspects. One looks at recorded history for observances, and empty craters, extinct volcanoes, earth upheavals, and possible resulting tsunamis. But for sure, it is always a challenge to identify causes of blips on the tree ring "radar screen."

Whenever a "suspect" is apprehended, we can not always be sure that cause is the only suspect. But for sure, trees respond to adverse climate conditions by having very narrow rings rather than normal thickness rings. As Baillie as put it, trees do not lie. We know that those who record history are quite capable of lying, but not trees.

Sadly (or maybe not), there are not enough climate disturbances to connect to enough events or sites in order to nail down many secure points of connection in a time line. But the hope is that enough of the 5 I will address, will maybe nail down 2 or 3 events in time.

Most Chronologies are lacking any solid certain points which can be used as frames of reference to attach "floating" Chronologies to. Egyptian chronologies are the perfect example. There is no solid secure date to attach even one single king lineage to. Intermediate periods are uncertain. We can secure a 605 BC date for the death of Pharaoh Neco, conquered by Babylon at that time. But going back from there, we have nothing meaningful.

In securing a Bible chronology, we have the 15th year of Tiberius when Jesus was 30 and baptized. We have the 587 BC destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon. And we have a continuous line of chronology from there all the way back to the flood and the claimed creation of man/Adam, for which I believe in. Right or wrong, it is a whole chronology that can takes us back to the past or send us into the present.

Tree rings do that, but with only 5 events and uncertainties in attaching them to events or recorded time lines, they offer possibilities but not certainties, perhaps. Still, I find the 2354 BC and the 1628 BC convincing and impressive and maybe dead ringers. 1159 BC shows a lot of promise. 208 BC looks like a dead end. And lastly, the 536 AD event shows good correlation.

But we do have other shorter anomalies. For instance, the 1816 volcanic explosion caused North America to experience winter for a solid 1.5 years, at least. These short 1 to 2 year events are also useful.

But really, astronomical observations help us to arrive at pretty solid dates from Neo-Babylonian times to the present. The real darkness is in the pre-Babylonian past. But to be able to determine a real world wide flood and within a narrow time frame of 9 years, with a precise starting point, is remarkable. 1628 BC may end up being very helpful. I believe it would put us in the 2nd Intermediate period of Egypt and increase Egypt's timeline by about 140 years.

The reason Egypt is so important is that most surrounding civilizations near to the Mediterranean all interacted with Egypt, so that their dates are also base on Egypt's dates. The problem with that is that things to not seem to match up all the way around and Carbon 14 dates tend to be older in most instances. So it is hoped that tree rings might help us eventually solve more connections in our time lines of mankind.

But some other problems with tree rings is that what affects a tree in place might not affect trees just a few hundred miles from it. Climates have a lot of strange behaviors. Also, the southern hemisphere has a different climate from the northern hemisphere. As well, climates change for some areas and not others. Even entire species of trees can change, interrupting a continuous growth of a tree ring lineage.

I am going put links to Baillie's books and Clube and Napier's, as well. Baillie has some wonderful stuff as regards tree ring science and climate influences/science. They will be at the bottom of this page.


2354-2345 BC
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I am going to make some big claims for this one. This was both a comet event and a massive volcanic as well. Its listed as just a comet cause. Few understand radiocarbon 14 dating but if you really did your homework, you'd find that while 14C is very useful at times, it can be way off by thousands of years as well. This is due to volcanic release of CO2, which of course, has no carbon 14 in it, since only atmospheric carbon can acquire 14C, as nitrogen atoms are bombarded with natural atmospheric radiation from outer space and converted to 14C. If a volcano were exceptionally large in explosion and large in CO2 release, the most abundant gas released by volcanoes, then this "dead" carbon, 14C free, will mix with the surrounding environmental carbon, which is always exposed to CO2 from the atmosphere and rain with CO2 in it, mixed with 14C.

I am the only one to have figured this out, at least by 2001 if not earlier. I forget when I started buying leftover volumes of Radiocarbon, first published by Yale and then the University of Arizona. The U of Arizona has since started publishing those volumes online as well, which was quite gracious of them. I bought the 1986 volumes first since these introduced calibration curves for Carbon 14 dates, based on dendro-chronological lineages assembled at the time.

RadioCarbon has undergone many refinements and improvements over the years and it is a useful tool as long as you keep in mind its vulnerabilities as well.

When a volcano adds more CO2 to the local area of its eruption, the volcanic CO2 will mix with the pre-existing carbon in the environment and the mixture in time will produce artificially older testing results, due to dead carbon mixing with present carbon. If a volcano were really large, it might contaminate the atmosphere, even into the stratosphere and extend into other countries and continents, becoming more diluted as it moved further from the volcano. I will publish the references soon, I hope. They show how contamination works but they have never accounted for what I have with that factor.

But here I suggest that multiple comets impacted the earth near to 2350 BC, 2354 BC by tree-ring accounting at present. This also set off Mt. Toba, the largest explosion of the last 400,000 years according to geologists. This is one factor. The other is that all the mega-fauna (unusually large versions of many of our present animals, but the large ones went extinct and in most cases, only the large ones. There were extinctions of entire species such as the wooly mammoth. This is a huge event with a big imprint on our world, some, if it not fully recognized even yet. Yes, I will say that a flood was the result, the very same as the Bible and other records and oral accounts testify to.

The mega-fauna went extinct in Australia, too, very close to Mt. Toba. Mungo Man was dated with the mega-fauna layer to 60,000 years BP (Before Present). One time I saw a figure of 70,000 years. I have seen Australian dates of 45,000 years to as low as 20,000 for measurements of mega-fauna extinctions. Why so very old here and yet in the Americas, you might have 10,000-14,000 years BP? Answer! The area near to Toba would be expected to show older 14C readings. Further from Toba the readings would drop off. In the Siberian and Arctic regions, you might get 30,000-40,000 years for the highest readings. In the Americas, the 10k-14k I previously mentioned.

Oddly, in places in the Middle East, you can get readings from Carbon 14 that date from as small as maybe 2150 BC, to maybe 9,000 BC. But 2300 BC or 2400 BC is not uncommon in this area for extinct civilizations and abandoned city mounds or layers in a city down to where there was a substantial change in culture. So lets start with Iraq next.


The Mesopotamian Region
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Umm al Binni lake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Umm al Binni lake is a mostly dry lake in Maysan Governorate in southern Iraq within the Central Marshes. The 3.4 km wide lake is approximately 45 km northwest of the TigrisEuphrates confluence. Because of its shape and location, it has been suggested to represent an impact crater.

The name means "Mother of Mesopotamic barbels", after the binni (Mesopotamic Barbel, Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi), a fish species formerly common in the lake and traditionally harvested by the spear-and-poison fishermen of the Marsh Arabs. Even though the lake has fallen dry in modern times, its name attests to the former abundance of M. sharpeyi, of which it may have been a spawning ground.

Evidence as an impact crater

Using satellite imagery, Master (2001, 2002) suggests the 3.4 km diameter dry lake may be an impact crater based on its nearly circular, slightly polygonal shape, rim shape, and contrasting shape to other lakes in the region. As to its origin, Master rules out Karst solution, salt doming, tectonic deformation, and igneous intrusion as well as possible bombing or man-made origins of the structure.

Master (2001, 2002) estimates the age of the crater to be less than 5,000 years, due to the deposition of sediments of the Tigris-Euphrates plain as a result of the 130–150 km seaward progradation of the Persian Gulf during that time period (Larsen & Evans 1978). A lack of writings describing this event by contemporary authors, such as Herodotus (484–425 BC) and Nearchus (360–300 BC) or later historians, suggests the impact may have taken place between 3000 and 5000 years BP (Master 2002). During this time period, the Al Amarah region was under the Persian Gulf at a depth of approximately 10 m (Larsen & Evans 1978: 237). Impact-induced tsunamis would have devastated coastal Sumerian cities. This may provide an alternate origin of the 2.6 m sediment layer discovered during an excavation of the Sumerian city of Ur by Leonard Woolley in 1922-1934. Descriptive passages in The Epic of Gilgamesh (circa 1600–1800 BCE) may describe such an impact and tsunami, suggesting a link to the Sumerian Deluge (Matthews 2001; Britt 2001):

...and the seven judges of Hell, the Annunaki, raised their torches, lighting the land with their livid flame. A stupor of despair went up to heaven when the god of the storm turned daylight into darkness, when he smashed the land like a cup. One whole day the tempest raged, gathering fury as it went, it poured over the people like tides of battle; a man could not see his brother nor the people be seen from heaven. Even the gods were terrified at the flood, they fled to the highest heaven, the firmament of Anu; they crouched against the walls, cowering like curs. (Sanders 1960).

Climate change and impact effects

It has been suggested that sudden climate changes and catastrophic events around 2200 BCE (including the collapse of the Sumerian civilisation) could be linked to a comet or asteroid impact (Courty 1997, 1998; Peiser 1997; Napier 1997; Bjorkman 1973, Weiss et al. 1993, Master 2001, 2002). It has been suggested by Master (2001, 2002), Master & Woldai (2004, 2006) that the alleged Umm al Binni impact could be responsible for this catastrophe, producing the energy equivalent to thousands of Hiroshima-sized bombs.

Using equations describing impact effects based on work from Collins et al. (2004), Shoemaker (1983), Glasstone & Dolan (1977) and others, Hamacher (2005) determined that an impacting bolide would have produced energy in the range of 190 to 750 megatons of TNT (for an asteroid and comet impact, respectively). This result is dependent on the impactor's density, size, and impact velocity. In order to produce an impact crater with the dimensions of Umm al Binni lake, a comet (density = 500 kg/m^3, v = 25 km/s) would have been between 200 and 300 m in diameter while a Ni-Fe asteroid (density = 7860 kg/m^3, v = 15 km/s) would have been between 90 and 110 m in diameter. The resulting impact effects would have caused massive devastation to an area thousands of square kilometres in size, but would not have been sufficient on its own to have caused the wide-scale damage seen at distances exceeding ~100 kilometers from the impact and thus could not be responsible for many of the more distant devastating effects on its own.

Although a large mount of circumstantial evidence has been published in the literature suggesting Umm al Binni is an impact crater, no on-site analysis has been done, primarily due to the current volatile and dangerous situation in Iraq. Therefore, Umm al Binni lake remains a possible, albeit unconfirmed, impact structure.

>>Note the 4th reference below for the date of 2350 BC<<

References

     http://www.itc.nl/library/Papers_2004/tech_rep/woldai_umm.pdf (1.56 MB)

This page was last modified on 24 December 2014 at 11:13.

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Truth1 >>> There are impact craters all over the world. Many can be found in North America. But many of these have been previously dated to like 10,000 BP or BC, and said to be an ice age extinction. The scope of what I bring up is huge and deserved far more treatment than this, but it waits for another time.

http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc110501.html

The link just above (The Cambridge Conference), they discuss the very same crater as Wikipedia did. The site listed itself as "is for
scholarly use only."

But I make fair use of this publicly published material as "Fair Use" under copyright law. The info supplied is merely titles of what has been published or discussed and we have a right to know what is being discussed among academics and "science." You do have a right to visit this website and read all about it. I would recommend it. But you won't hear them say what I am saying. They do mention the 2354-2345 BC range and mention 2350 BC several times. Most of them do not like to get too precise and say 2354 BC or something like that. That might sound like agreeing with the Bible; heaven forbid! <<<

(1) COLLAPSE OF EARLY BRONZE AGE CIVILISATIONS: HAS THE SMOKING GUN BEEN FOUND?
    Benny J Peiser 

(2) METEOR CLUE TO END OF MIDDLE EAST CIVILISATIONS
    The Sunday Telegraph, 4 November 2001

(3) THE AL' AMARAH STRUCTURE
    Claudio Elidoro 

(4) METEOR SHOWERS BLOTTED OUT MAN'S FIRST CIVILISATIONS
    The Sunday Times, 14 December 1997

(5) CLUES TO BRONZE AGE COMET STRIKE
    BBC Online News, 25 May 1998

(6) BRONZE AGE CITIES MAY HAVE BEEN DESTROYED BY COMET
    The Times, 8 March 1997

(7) NEW EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL CLIMATE DISASTER IN 3rd MILLENNIUM BC
    SCIENCE, Volume 279, Number 5349, 16 January 1998, pp.325-326

(8) CATCH A FALLING STAR
    Jewish Chronicle, 6 March 1998

(9) NATURAL DISASTER AROUND 2300BC DUE TO COSMIC IMPACT?
    Benny J Peiser

--------------------------------------------------------

The Telegraph (in the UK)    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/4767253/Meteor-clue-to-end-of-Middle-East-civilisations.html

"Meteor clue to end of Middle East civilisations"

Same Iraq crater and dates discussed.

--------------------------------------------------------

From Rense.Com
Comets, Meteors & Myth: New Evidence for Toppled Civilizations and Biblical Tales
http://www.rense.com/general16/cometsmeteorsandmyth.htm
By Robert Roy Britt - Senior Science Writer - SPACE.com 11-13-1

Too Many Coincidences
 
Archeological findings show that in the space of a few centuries, many of the first sophisticated civilizations disappeared. The Old Kingdom in Egypt fell into ruin. The Akkadian culture of Iraq, thought to be the world's first empire, collapsed. The settlements of ancient Israel, gone. Mesopotamia, Earth's original breadbasket, dust.
 
Around the same time -- a period called the Early Bronze Age -- apocalyptic writings appeared, fueling religious beliefs that persist today.
The Epic of Gilgamesh describes the fire, brimstone and flood of possibly mythical events. Omens predicting the Akkadian collapse preserve a record that "many stars were falling from the sky." The "Curse of Akkad," dated to about 2200 B.C., speaks of "flaming potsherds raining from the sky."
 
Roughly 2000 years later, the Jewish astronomer Rabbi bar Nachmani created what could be considered the first impact theory: That Noah's Flood was triggered by two "stars" that fell from the sky. "When God decided to bring about the Flood, He took two stars from Khima, threw them on Earth, and brought about the Flood."
 
Another thread was woven into the tale when, in 1650, the Irish Archbishop James Ussher mapped out the chronology of the Bible -- a feat that included stringing together all the "begats" to count generations -- and put Noah's great flood at 2349 B.C.
 
All coincidence?
 
A number of scientists don't think so.
 
Mounting hard evidence collected from tree rings, soil layers and even dust that long ago settled to the ocean floor indicates there were widespread environmental nightmares in the Near East during the Early Bronze Age: Abrupt cooling of the climate, sudden floods and surges from the seas, huge earthquakes.

Comet as a Culprit


But now more than ever, it appears a comet could be the culprit. One or more devastating impacts could have rocked the planet, chilled the air, and created unthinkable tsunamis -- ocean waves hundreds of feet high. Showers of debris wafting through space -- concentrated versions of the dust trails that create the Leonids -- would have blocked the Sun and delivered horrific rains of fire to Earth for years.
 
So far, the comet theory lacks firm evidence. Like a crater.
 
Now, though, there is this depression in Iraq. It was found accidentally by Sharad Master, a geologist at the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, while studying satellite images. Master says the crater bears the signature shape and look of an impact caused by a space rock.
 
--------------------------------------------- End of Site/Article quote

http://www.barry.warmkessel.com/4related.html#d2

The above link is fascinating and excellent, due merely to the number of references, yet all brief and quickly absorbable. I strongly urge you to visit the link which deals with the time, comet theory and drawing in other places and events as well, like Sodom and Gomorrah.

---------------------------------------------

What remains is realizing that what took place in the Middle Eastern Mesopotamian valley also took place all around the world and at the same time within days of each other at most. Fire layers can be found all over the world at this event, whether the so called Ice Age extinction, or Flood, or whatever. And that it was both cometary and volcanic, that remains for me to prove. I'm up to it!

But what we have is the beginnings of a consensus, given tree ring findings, folklore, archaeological evidence, and yes, the Bible extracted chronology as well. Coincidence? I think NOT!


Clube, Napier, and Baillie
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Victor Clube and William Napier set the Archaeological world on fire. They suggested that there was a large comet that collided with another comet or asteroid body and broke into many pieces that formed a belt/orbit around the sun, but sort of perpendicular to the plane what the planetary orbits circulate in. Earth would periodically intersect with this belt of comets and experience disasters at times, as a result. They suggest the flood of Noah could have been a real event, at least as far as timing and a disaster happening with cometary impacts. This was pretty solid astronomy, but the mainstream was not happy about it, suggesting that "mythologies could have some basis in fact. The nerve of those guys ;-) Lets burn them at the stake!

Well, I like them and their solid science that interferes with the propaganda of Academia, owned and operated by the NWO and many nations, too. They supplied a cause to Baillie's climate studies and climate impacts/disasters. They even explained the somewhat continual and periodic timing of these disasters. Baillie is famous for his work on tree ring dating and using tree rings to reveal climate disturbances. It was only natural that these guys would all end up working together.

Their books come highly rated by the few that have an interest in these subjects. But I will make a prediction here. Now that I am giving them attention, shills will soon visit and post critical reviews on Amazon to try to erode my theories. They will fail, but they will feel better and make their employers happy. So keep your eyes peeled.

But here is another aspect I noticed while reviewing books I had bought and read or wanted to buy and read. The prices had gone way up over their original value. Generally, when a book is seen as bad for the status quo and threatening the establishment, they will possibly buy the books and raise the price far above what most would pay so that more people may not find out or look into it. I took frame grabs of my browser so I could demonstrate what I speak of.

First up is Mike Baillie's excellent book, here mainly for your review. Visit Amazon to see what reviewers had to say. I bought this book once upon a time. I paid no more than $20 or $30, but near that. It was too valuable a book to ignore.

It sold for 25 UK pounds, about $35-38 USA currency when it came out. So I got it cheaper. I am a tightwad Scotsman, you ought to know. As you can see, it does go for more now, but still not steep prices you see with Clube and Napier books. Not many people buy books like this so prices tend to be high sometimes, anyway. They know that those who care about the subject will pay the price. That's yours truly, for one.

Next up is Baillie's book on comet impacts affecting the climate and how geology affects it, too, and the dates shown as climate disturbances. An excellent book.

There are 4 reviews that are nonsense. They say Baillie sees comets behind everything. Not so! Baillie did point out that some of the observations made about some catastrophic events were not what volcanoes produce so that it is more likely that a comet might have initiated the catastrophe or even triggered the volcano afterward. This is not only reasonable, but how else can you explain phenomena that simply do not belong to volcanoes but do accompany Comets. In fact, Baillie lists many things comets manifest. So shills were hard at work on this one. They are just angry because Baillie dares suggest there may be more to the flood story than we previously believed, especially as regards timing, being near to 2350 BC. This is a super book. I paid near to $20. It was 20 pounds UK currency when new, hard cover. That's about $30 USA. So I got a good price on it. Its still going for about $20.

This below is the book that set off a firestorm. They claimed they could pinpoint the original super comet (Enke by name) that splintered into many pieces that form an orbital ring around the sun, somewhat perpendicular to the orbits of the planets. The Taurid stream was the result and we pass through or near it periodically. They suggest that the crater impacts near to 2350 BC likely came from this stream. 

But note the prices of this book. I do not know what it 1st sold for but it was not $169, I assure you. Why so high? Because it is solid irrefutable science that makes the flood not only look possible, but likely if not certain. Perish the thought. So to prevent you the reader from buying this and seeing how concrete the theory is, they jacked the price thru the roof. Now I am not saying to do this, but it is possible to get this at some libraries thru the inter-library-loan service. One could in theory copy this fast at a Staples store. At 300 pages, with 2 facing pages to a side of paper and using both sides, you get 4 pages per piece of paper. At 300, you would make 75 pages of copy paper, at 10 cents per page, you arrive at $7.50, at 15 cents, your still at about $11. That's much cheaper than $170.

But you probably do not need to do that now. They have written this book over several times, the latest with Baillie joining them for a more broad coverage of the subject. Its coming up here. I have never read this book, but I came across its ideas many times on the internet. Well received by catastrophists. Yes, I am one, too. It has all 5 star ratings! How bout dat! Below is Barnes and Noble's offering of the same book. Here you can get it for a mere $125 rather than $170. Or you can pay $358 if you like. There is a better option to come shortly.

Next below is their follow up book to the above. That its available for a mere $50 is a bargain compared to $122 or $170. But its still too high. But they had to keep people from reading Clube and Napier. Again, all 5 star reviews. Clube and Napier are authentic, and Baillie as much so, but people really got it in for poor Mike Baillie for being sensible about ancient testimonies.

Below is the more recent offering of the big 3 together. This may cover most of what was in earlier books though I can not confirm that. I have just bought it and have yet to read it. Again, all 5 star ratings. I got mine for $8. It still goes back to 1990 and Baillie's "Exodus to Arthur" is much more recent, 2003 in paperback.

But the 3 of these guys together ought to cover just about everything. That is what I am hoping, anyway.

But for sure, these 3 guys do get plenty of respect on the net, and among those who demand that the scientific method be followed to the letter. Astronomy is pretty serious and precise. Its math, really. There is not much to dispute in it. But I wanted you to see the prices and a little bit of ridicule so you can see how bogus the ridicule really is. Just shills earning a living, right?


Mt. Thera Eruption 1628 BC
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The Mt. Thera explosion is the 3rd largest volcanic explosion of the last million years. It impacted the climate of a good portion of the world in a very noticeable way by causing poor growth in tree rings that stand out in assembled tree ring records. That is to say, it stands out like a sore thumb and has few rivals for its impact and better for us, its high reliable precision dating. Any site that shows evidence of this volcanic fallout or if the site has lumber or logs that can be found to have the tree ring pattern belonging to Thera will establish an exact date that can be used to fit in to the site.

The place it ends up in, date-wise, in the midst of Joseph, Levi, Kohath, Amram and Moses, shows the exact time period and allows, quite easily, the series of events to fit very nicely with Egyptian history from Joseph to Moses, assuming the 1628 BC date of Thera is in the early times of Thutmose III (aka Tuthmosis III) or earlier. I suspect earlier, given the excavations of Manfred Bietak.

The Egyptian King lists for the 18th Dynasty are very suspect. IN particular, those of Thutmose III, Akhenaten, and Horemheb. As well, we are likely looking at a dark period in the 20th dynasty dating, where a lot of time is missing to the tune of as much as 150 years according to Manfred Bietak of the University of Austria. So I supply the info in this short article to secure using this date to add in with Bible Chronology. It is the kind of science that deserves to be heard and considered.

---------------------------------

Minoan eruption        from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Santorini Landsat.jpg Satellite image of Thera, November 21, 2000
Eruption date of 1628/29 BC, Plinian type eruption

Plinian eruptions, also known as Vesuvian eruptions, are volcanic eruptions marked by their similarity to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. The eruption was described in a letter written by Pliny the Younger; it killed his uncle, Pliny the Elder.

Plinian eruptions are marked by columns of gas and volcanic ash extending high into the stratosphere, a high layer of the atmosphere. The key characteristics are ejection of large amount of pumice and very powerful continuous gas blast eruptions.

A Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of 60 km3 (14 cu mi),[1][2]

The volcanic explosivity index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the US Geological Survey and Stephen Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.

Volume of products, eruption cloud height, and qualitative observations (using terms ranging from "gentle" to "mega-colossal") are used to determine the explosivity value. The scale is open-ended with the largest volcanoes in history given magnitude 8. A value of 0 is given for non-explosive eruptions, defined as less than 10,000 m3 (350,000 cu ft) of tephra ejected; and 8 representing a mega-colossal explosive eruption that can eject 1.0×1012 m3 (3.5×1013 cu ft) of tephra and have a cloud column height of over 50 km (31 mi). The scale is logarithmic, with each interval on the scale representing a tenfold increase in observed ejecta criteria, with the exception of between VEI 0, VEI 1 and VEI 2.[1]

Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. St. Helens were a VEI of 5.
Krakatoa (1883), Pinatubo (1991) were VEI of 6.
Thera was a possible 7.
Mt. Toba (74,000 BC), an explosion I say was part of the cause of Noahs's flood was a VEI of 8, as was Yellowstone of 640,000 BC. These were both classified as Super Volcanoes. They are the largest recorded in geological history of the last million years.

Thera was just one step short of matching the 2 super monsters. We could call it the 3 biggest eruption of all time going back to Yellowstone and the 2nd biggest during the time and age of man's existence. To state it plainly, it was a damn big explosion that rocked the "Richter" scale of explosions, that is, it was in the biggest of big leagues.

With such a huge portion of ejaculate reaching right to the top of the stratosphere. This would cause major climate change for at least a year or two and would show in the climate record of tree rings so very important for dating, the most precise form of dating in existence. In fact, it does show up clearly, distinctly, and all over the world, in the tree ring records of Dendrochronologists and their Universities.

This event is among the most thoroughly and distinctly verified events in existence of the physical world. Its date is exact and should be uncontestable unless contrary evidence of a superior nature should come along, which has not happened yet. There may be explosions not recognized or identified yet. But of all those on record, Thera is a monster by any measure we have to date.

Limitations of VEI      also from Wikipedia

Under the VEI, ash, lava, lava bombs and ignimbrite are all treated alike. Density and vesicularity (gas bubbling) of the volcanic products in question is not taken into account. In contrast, the DRE (dense-rock equivalent) is sometimes calculated to give the actual amount of magma erupted. Another weakness of the VEI is that it does not take into account the power output of an eruption, which makes it extremely difficult to determine with prehistoric or unobserved eruptions.

Although VEI is quite suitable for classifying the explosive magnitude of eruptions, the index is not as significant as sulphur dioxide emissions in quantifying their atmospheric and climatic impact, as a 2004 paper by Georgina Miles, Roy Grainger and Eleanor Highwood points out.

“Tephra, or fallout sediment analysis, can provide an estimate of the explosiveness of a known eruption event. It is, however, not obviously related to the amount of SO2 emitted by the eruption. The volcanic explosivity index (VEI) was derived to catalogue the explosive magnitude of historical eruptions, based on the order of magnitude of erupted mass, and gives a general indication as to the height the eruptive column reached. The VEI itself is inadequate for describing the atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions. This is clearly demonstrated by two eruptions, Agung (1963) and El Chichón (1982). Their VEI classification separates them by an order of magnitude in explosivity, although the volume of SO2 released into the stratosphere by each was measured to be broadly similar, as shown by the optical depth data for the two eruptions.”[4]

>None of the above changes anything regarding Thera.<

Magnitude

Recent research, by a team of international scientists in 2006, revealed that the Santorini event was much larger than the original estimate of 39 km3 (9.4 cu mi) of Dense-Rock Equivalent (DRE), or total volume of material erupted from the volcano, that was published in 1991.[1] With an estimated DRE in excess of 60 km3 (14 cu mi),[1][6] the volume of ejecta was approximately 100 km3 (24 cu mi).[11] If so, the eruption's Volcanic Explosivity Index was 7. The volcano ejected up to four times as much as the well-recorded eruption by Krakatoa in 1883. The Thera volcanic events and subsequent ashfall probably sterilized the island, as occurred on Krakatoa. Only the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption of 1815, Lake Taupo's Hatepe eruption around 180 CE, and perhaps the Baekdu Mountain eruption around 970 CE released more material into the atmosphere during historic times.[4][5]

Sequence

On Santorini, there is a 60 m (200 ft) thick layer of white tephra that overlies the soil clearly delineating the ground level prior to the eruption. This layer has three distinct bands that indicate the different phases of the eruption.[12] Studies have identified four major eruption phases, and one minor precursory tephra fall. The thinness of the first ash layer, along with the lack of noticeable erosion of that layer by winter rains before the next layer was deposited, indicate that the volcano gave the local population a few months' warning. Since no human remains have been found at the Akrotiri site, this preliminary volcanic activity probably caused the island's population to flee. It is also suggested that several months before the eruption, Santorini experienced one or more earthquakes, which damaged the local settlements.[13][14]

Intense magmatic activity of the first major phase (B01/Minoan A) of the eruption deposited up to 7 m (23 ft) of pumice and ash, with a minor lithic component, southeast and east. Archaeological evidence indicated burial of man-made structures with limited damage. The second (B02/Minoan B) and third (B03/Minoan C) eruption phases involved pyroclastic flow activity and the possible generation of tsunamis. Man-made structures not buried during Minoan A were completely destroyed. The third phase was also characterized by the initiation of caldera collapse. The fourth, and last, major phase (B04/Minoan D) was marked by varied activity: lithic-rich base surge deposits, lahars, debris flows, and co-ignimbrite ash-fall deposits. This phase was characterized by the completion of caldera collapse, which produced tsunami.[15]

Eruption dating

The Minoan eruption is a key marker for the Bronze Age chronology of the Eastern Mediterranean world. It provides a fixed point for aligning the entire chronology of the second millennium BCE in the Aegean, because evidence of the eruption is found throughout the region. Despite this evidence, the exact date of the eruption has been difficult to determine. Archaeologists have traditionally placed it at approximately 1500 BCE.[14][21] Radiocarbon dates, including analysis of an olive branch buried beneath a lava flow from the volcano which gave a date between 1627 BCE and 1600 BCE (95% confidence interval), suggest a date over a century earlier.[22][23][24] Thus, the radiocarbon dates and the archaeological dates are in substantial disagreement.[25]

In 2012 one of the proponents of an archaeological date, Felix Höflmayer, argued that archaeological evidence could be consistent with a date as early as 1590 BCE, reducing the discrepancy to around fifty years.[26]

Conversely, the radiocarbon dates have been argued to be inaccurate on scientific grounds. This argument has been made in particular by Malcolm Wiener.[27][28][29] The primary problem is that 14C-deficient carbon, sourced from the environment, might easily have affected the radiocarbon dates. Evidence for at least some environmental effect is extremely strong. The eruption's chemical signatures have been found in Greenland ice cores from 1646 BCE.[citation needed]. Recently, a dating of the Eruption at about 1570 BCE (which would fit in with both radiocarbon - unsequenced- results and with proxy-data as Volcanic-tied acidity peaks in Greenland ice-cores) was suggested by some scholars, including formerly proponent of an archaeological date Tiziano Fantuzzi. [30]

>>Truth1>> Regarding Wiener points out the dead carbon effect, which a volcano could creat, by huge releases, of among other things, CO2 with no 14c in it. But according to my hunch, the jet stream would also have a big effect on this. Let's say that Thera explodes and releases lots of CO2 with no 14c in it. But the general jet-stream grabs the air with large amounts of CO2 and takes them eastward. If rain is created, the 14c concentration would be lowered, making things containing the absorbed carbon look older. Or the CO2 might  just circulate in the air and only mildly affect the concentration of 14c.

The problem here is that academia up to now, has been unwilling to admit this sort of possibility. So why is Wiener bringing it up? How has this been received? And if we admit it here, then all dates are going to have to be reconsidered. Hell will freeze over first.<<

Relative chronology

Archaeologists developed the Late Bronze Age chronologies of eastern Mediterranean cultures by analyzing the origin of artifacts (for example, items from Crete, mainland Greece, Cyprus or Canaan) found in each archaeological layer.[31] If an artifact's origin can be accurately dated, then it gives a reference date for the layer in which it is found. If the Thera eruption could be associated with a given layer of Cretan (or other) culture, chronologists could use the date of that layer to date the eruption itself. Since Thera's culture at the time of destruction was similar to the Late Minoan IA (LMIA) culture on Crete, LMIA is the baseline to establish chronology elsewhere. The eruption also aligns with Late Cycladic I (LCI) and Late Helladic I (LHI) cultures, but predates Peloponnesian LHI.[32] Archeological digs on Akrotiri have also yielded fragments of nine Syro-Palestinian Middle Bronze II (MBII) gypsum vessels.[31]

The Aegean prehistorians felt so confident about their calculations that they rejected early radiocarbon dates in the 1970s for LMI/LCI Thera, because radiocarbon suggested a date about a century earlier than the "traditional" dates.[33]

At Tell el Dab'a in Egypt, pumice found at this location has been dated to 1540 BCE, closer to the traditionally accepted date of Thera's eruption. This matches the composition of the Thera eruption.[34] This pumice has been contentious since the 1990s, as it represents the most prominent supported date that differs from the old chronology.

Ice cores and tree rings

Greenland ice cores shows evidence of a large volcanic eruption in 1642 ± 5 BCE which was suggested as being associated with Santorini.[35] However, volcanic ash retrieved from an ice core does not match the expected Santorini fingerprint.[17] The late Holocene eruption of the Mount Aniakchak, a volcano in Alaska, is now believed to be the source of the minute shards of volcanic glass in the Greenland ice core.[36][37]

Another method used to establish the date of eruption is tree-ring dating. Tree-ring data has shown that a large event interfering with normal tree growth in North America occurred during 1629–1628 BCE.[38] Evidence of a climatic event around 1628 BCE has been found in studies of growth depression of European oaks in Ireland and of Scotch pines in Sweden.[39] Bristlecone pine frost rings also indicate a date of 1627 BCE, supporting the late 1600s BCE dating.[40][41] Procedural changes in how ice cores are interpreted would bring that data more in line with the dendrochronological numbers.[42]

Climatic effects

Hydrogeologist Philip LaMoreaux asserted in 1995 that the eruption caused significant climatic changes in the eastern Mediterranean region, Aegean Sea and much of the Northern Hemisphere,[43] but this was forcefully rebutted by volcanologist David Pyle a year later.[44]

Around the time of the radiocarbon-indicated date of the eruption, there is evidence for a significant climatic event in the Northern Hemisphere. The evidence includes failure of crops in China (see below), as well as evidence from tree rings, cited above: bristlecone pines of California; bog oaks of Ireland, England, and Germany; and other trees in Sweden. The tree rings precisely date the event to 1628 BCE.[38][39]

End of Wikipedia quotes and accounts


1159 BC & the 1200 BC- 800 BC Dark Age
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We have the firm 1159 BC climate disturbance in the tree ring record. And we have a well noted "dark age" generally dated in approximate round numbers of 1200 BC to 800 BC. Now right off, I think the 800 BC date would be far more reliable. We have more material evidence and inscriptions to consult with. as for the 400 year span, this varies from region to region and 400 probably encompasses all those out side dates. It may be possible/required to reduce it a little. I want to share some possibilities concerning a dark age in the bible as well as some Egyptian dates. Is it possible that the 1159 BC date happened further along in history rather than back further to 1200 BC as it is at the moment.

For one, certain regions might be affected sooner or later than other regions so that the boundaries of this period might move or shorten or lengthened. It may also be that more than just climate was involved. Economic Collapse, too? A collapse  of an empire that left a vacuum that set of a chain reaction? My concern is with the somewhat quiet and seldom discussed collapse of the Egyptian 20th dynasty, dated 1196-1070 BC by the Atlas of Ancient. Is it missing some years of accounting due to a total collapse of order? I ponder this because the most momentous upheaval in the region of Canaan and Egypt took place in the 18th dynasty of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenophis IV/Akhenaton. They lost all their territory outside of Egypt to the north and there was quite a bit of destruction within Egypt. There would be no resumption of power in earnest till Rameses II, given as 1290 to 1224 BC.

What I did was pick outstanding events and see where the dates fell. I did this from a Bible Perspective. The famine of Joseph should stand out as Climate/Environment disaster that was like none before it. This gives us our best chance of a connection. The irony is that the collapse leads to Egyptian wealth, explaining the power and wealth of Egypt. Their food/crop production continues long after the 12th Dynasty.

Then we have the breakdown of the Nile Delta region, which experienced heavy immigration  from all over. Minoans, Sea Peoples Philistines, Canaanites and more. Then the 17th dynasty takes control of the Avaris Hysos kingdom and reasserts itself in the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. Then at its Zenith of wealth and power, it totally collapses and all its Canaannite territory is lost and the region experience a sort of dark age. In the Bible this is period is known as the time of the judges, before they had a king instead. Those are 3 big events. Egypt was the huge power of the say before that collapse. Only the Minoans and Sea Peoples had any autonomy, really, along with Greece maybe.

Egypt was the center of civilization very near to the 1159 BC date. And then we also have the collapse of the expansive domineering 12th dynasty which splintered into 5 or 6 small petty kingdoms in the delta region of Egypt and maybe the southern Levant. This at about 1783 BC. This area experiences 3 breakdowns. It begs for explanation but none is forthcoming. But I  have some figures, not as a solution but as possibilities and directions to look into.

I believe that The collapse of the Akhenaton administration in 1493 BC according to Bible dating, was as a result of a conflict with Moses and Israel. Many classify the 18th dynasty as being Late Bronze but many of the civilizations with cultural associations with Egypt are classified as Middle Bronze. So we already have confusion. The 18th dynasty was advanced in comparison with the northern Levant above it. So It looked Late Bronze when the more primitive northern vassal states looked Middle Bronze.

Akhenaton in his year 5 would be 1349 BC secular and the terminus for the Exodus. The difference is 1349 BC and 1493 BC  is 144 years at this point.
Jacob/Israel meets, if I am right, Amenemhet III in 1708 BC and the Exodus begins at 1493 BC covering 215 years.

My calculations, which indicate much of Chronology terminating at the end of the 20th dynasty of Egypt, is 144 years too short. Bible Chrono says 1710 BC for the beginning of the famine and Israel entering Egypt (1708 BC) to begin the 215 sojourn in Egypt, ending with the Exodus and death of Pharaoh in 1493 BC by Bible chronology.

Amenemhets years according to the "Atlas of Ancient Egypt" are  1844 BC - 1797 BC. 

Israel arrived and met Pharaoh in 1708 BC by My bible Chronology. 1708 BC, if it were right, means the Intermediate period has inflated by at least 1797-1708 for 89 years. If Jacob met Amenemhet 20 years before his death, then the secular date would be 109 years further back than it would need to be.
For a span covering nearly 3700 years from the present, that is not so bad. Akhenaton, if the bible were correct at 1493 for his death in year 5 of his reign in 1349 BC, the Bible has older dates by 144 years too old. So we have gone from 144 too old to 89-109 too young. So the gap is closed by 35 yrs for 109 and 55 for 89.

I'll jump to after the 20th dynasty to the beginning of the 22nd dynasty. Another intersection would be King Reheboam of Judah being defeated by Pharaoh Shishak/Shoshenq/Shoshenk I.

Reheboam reigned from 977 BC to 960 BC Bible time and   Shishak/Shoshenq I   945 BC to 924 BC Secular. The reigns of those 2 are separated by a 15 year open gap. That is not so unreasonable. They are close. Shishak was the first king of the 22nd dynasty. A 15 plus gap is much better than 144 years. So somewhere between Shishak and Akhenaton of the 18th dynasty, the gap went from 15 to 144. That is not so good. But who do we blame?

I thought I would try some other dates and see how close or not they were. For example, we have a solid united date of 609 BC, the Battle of Carchemish. King Josiah of Judah dies in that battle time. Babylon defeats Assyrian at that battle and goes after Egypt and defeats her, too. All are united in that date.

The 21st Dynasty seem stable. But the 20th was anything but stable. The time between the 20th and 21st dynasties is labeled as the 3rd Intermediate period, to they do recognize some aberrations in that transition. No records really, no accomplishments. Worse, they robbed most of the tombs in the Valley of the kings, desecrating some of the mummies as well. Law and order appear to be gone. Respect is gone. Whoever was in power looted the tombs in all likelihood. I suspect that like the 2nd intermediate period, the unrecognized 20th dynasty collapse was also a time when records were not kept and order was gone. Could it be 144 years off? Was the 18th dynasty way too inflated?

We can find lots of questionable accounting of reigns of kings. Nearly ever king seemed to have a number of years. Thutmoses III took Hatshepsut's years in some chronologies. Ay and Horemheb seem to steal years of others as the last two of the 18th dynasty. With no accounting for the intermediate periods and no honesty or candor in reporting reigns, deeds, and accomplishments, academics have damn good reason to hold their chronology in deep suspicion.

You would think they would welcome Carbon 14 dating and tree ring dating. But that is not the case. But if it was true science and the scientific method, then any and all means to date should be done with welcome arms and see that it might reveal. I don't think truth and accuracy are their goals. I th ink they are terrified that just maybe there might a pile of evidence to support Bible Chronology and their events. If not, then why avoid the other measure?

Academia has always been very inclined toward the left. They embrace evolution and atheism although I those two contradict each other. But only only concern here is that all options are fully explored and considered so that we might get a more distinct and accurate picture. Is that so much to ask? Academics are hypocrites to their own supposed ethics, just as many religious peoples are. Even political views are often betrayed by those professing them. Same for journalists, doctors and medical staff. Human nature is rife hypocrisy. I do believe that such a state does present a danger to our continued survival as a species.

I am working on another article on the times of Joseph and Moses, carefully examining the details of those accounts to see what they might reveal in determining, if possible, what might be behind the 1159 BC climate disturbance and if there was any impact from that that can be recognized and accounted for. I also have 2 books on the way to consider as well. But I am sure Egypt holds some of our answers. One thing for sure. Egypt lost her power under Akhenaton. That had to affect other places and things.

The Bible is not, as far as we know, written down before the Exodus. We can assume a date near to the Exodus for the records to be written down. I assume Genesis was dictated by God to Moses. For the record, it is not said for sure when. But Abraham could have begun the writing and had it passed down, eventually to Moses, but I think Moses at Mt. Sinai is likely. Moses then took dictation from God at Sinai.

But the Bible ends up being a continuous historical narrative with numbers galore and a recording system kept by an official appointed bureaucracy, the Priesthood. In fact, it is likely as this was such an important part of the formal religion of Israel and God that the documents should be given a fair amount consideration worth considering in a serious and diligent manner. True, it is only a single source, but one copied and renewed over and over again, and all copies showing little mistakes but nothing major from about 1500 BC to  1 AD or 30 AD in the form of the  Dead Sea Scrolls and Greek manuscripts as well, though I think those got tampered with with it came to dates. The Hebrew Scripts have been consistent.

Further, the Bibles of today are pretty much identical to what we find in the Dead Sea Scrolls as well as copied manuscripts. of perhaps 1500 AD and maybe a little earlier. These add even more credibility to the soundness of such records and good reason to not dismiss them lightly. But Academia, like the Mainstream Media and its fake news, has no credibility. It will be up to you to make the final call.

It occurred to me on Jan. 15 to take the 1200 BC to 800 BC Dark age and compare it with the Bible's  Judges period : 1453 BC to 1097 BC  for 356 years and also said to be a time when every man did what was good in his own (selfish) eyes, rather than by an objective set of laws from God. Chaos!

Judges:  1453 BC to 1137 BC  Bible time, 356 years long

Secular: 1200 BC to 800 BC, 400 years long

The oldest Bible date is 253 years older than the secular dark age of 1200 BC
The youngest date of the Bible is 337 years older than the secular 800 BC.

The dates are not close to each other but on the other hand, the length of the 2 periods are very similar. That I find interesting. A mere 44 years difference in dark periods is practically a match. It is within the realm of possibility. 1159 BC fits into both of those time periods. That too, is interesting. With the Judges, 1159 comes near the end of that period with a 22 year gap to the end. With the secular dark age, we are 41 years from the beginning of that period. 

I believe the intersections shared make this something worth looking into, to see if more answers can be obtained or not.

Now the Judges time period on my Chronology, Starts at the Exodus and terminates with Saul becoming the king. But Paul in the bible reckons the Judges period as 450 years, likely including the 40 years of Moses in the desert, and years to Samson and Samuel perhaps accounting for near to 30 years more. But as it stands, ignoring Moses from a judge standpoint and counting him as number of years accounted for, separately, we could have 396 years (practically 400) if we pushed the judges period back 40 years. But then we are not as close to the Secular dates. Samuel lived sometime into the reign of Saul. If Samuel was a judge for say maybe 20 years into that reign and his years were considered part of the judges then the gap is lessened by 20 and the period is extended nearer to the secular dark age. That's now 400 to 376, a difference of 24 years. I'd see that as encouraging.

I do not think this is a small or unlikely possibility. I think it has some real merit and good possibility. It is the only continuous accounting of time in the world, going back this far and back to the flood, which my calculations from the Bible say 2350 BC and secular tree ring dating suggests either 2354 BC or 2349 BC for the biggest climate disruption in the entire Tree ring record. The two may not be unrelated. As well, there is the 1159 BC climate disruption which falls within both the Secular and Bible dark ages I number just above.

Sorry but I got to put in a plug for me. Show me one other site anywhere in the world, that has made attempts to reconcile Bible Chronology with key methods of secular science chronology and come up with possibilities, too. I welcome competition and cooperation. But no one has answered yet, after me studying science since 1990 and working at Bible chronology since 2000 with Floyd Nolan Jones being a big help with his book, which I got in 2008. His work was superb, even if not perfect.

Here are some tidbits I acquired from the net last night.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1150s_BC

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Climate change in 1159 BC and the hydrological record
http://www.academia.edu/4555852/Climate_change_in_1159_BC_and_the_hydrological_record

The climate change events of 2350 BC, 1159 BC and 540 AD are not disputed, although to date their effects have been largely unknown. Baillie (2000) suggests that the 2350 BC event resulted in prolonged waterlogging, possibly as a result of seismic activity which raised the water table. Of the 1159 event however, no conclusive evidence of either cause or effect has been presented.

In 1159 BC, that pastoral existence would have changed dramatically. It has become increasingly evident that the diverted watercourses in Coumaraglin are the human response to sudden climate change. Evidence both there and at Knocknaffrin shows beyond reasonable doubt that devastating flooding occurred, the agrarian and social consequences of which would have been dire. Crop failure and famine would have been inevitable, followed by a period of decline. Such a deluge may also explain the deposition of valuable objects in rivers and pools, as the populace attempted to appease the Gods and make the rain stop. The evidence presented here shows that at some time after 1400 BC, Ireland was inundated.

The tree rings show severe climate change took place in 1159 BC, whilst the hydrological records demonstrate catastrophic flooding took place at around the same time. Taking all things into consideration, it is unlikely that these two events are unrelated, with the latter being a direct consequence of the former. Similar diverted watercourses can be seen across Ireland, particularly in the south east. They can be found on ordnance survey maps, running obliquely across the contours, and can be studied further using high definition aerial photography.

In all the examples studied so far, the same pattern can be seen, with watercourses deviating from their original paths, which are clearly indicated by remnant contour patterns. If, as looks increasingly likely, the watercourses indicate the beginning of a deluge in 1159 BC, it may perhaps be possible to discover its extent by their presence. Similar hydrological anomolies exist in the chalk downs of south east England, which have until now been attributed to glacial meltwater. Whilst originally a plausible theory, an entirely new scenario now presents itself, which is perhaps deserving of further investigation

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http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/fr/744698/posts

Mike Baillie:

Also the connection between Hekla 3 and the 1159 BC event is questionable, because of its larger context from Mycenean to Shang dynasty China.

Baillie has later come to the conclusion that only 1628 BC is volcano-based, but 2345 BC and 1159 BC are not.


 



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