Created Monday, Oct. 31, 2005 -  finished April 31, 2008

Lessons From the Law
Commentary on Numbers

Sub-headings:        Numbers: Chapter(s):


6 - 9

10 - 29

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I just cover the basics of chapters that have little to do with details of the laws and do not have as much relevance to us in our day. But by all means, you should read them. I summarize them throughout the law. The first 4 chapters are summarized.

Chapter 1: Israel is numbered (a census count). All men 20 and older who could fight in a war were counted and offerings had to be made for them when numbering them. So it was best not to do this often. It was to be ordered by God.

Chapter 2: The camps arranged around the tabernacle, north, south, east, and west around the tabernacle, with certain tribes assigned one of those specific directions in which to camp, 3 tribes in each direction.

Chapter 3: The sons of Levi were assigned to Aaron's lineage as helpers. Aaron's sons were to be the priests. They are numbered with some lineage given.

Chapter 4: The sons of Moses are assigned to help with moving the tabernacle and its contents from one place to another. Note the extreme detail and record keeping.


Numbers 5
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Chapter 5:
1 And Jehovah spoke to Moses, saying,
2 Command the sons of Israel, and they shall send every leper out of the camp, and everyone with an issue, and everyone defiled by a dead body.
3 You shall send out from male and female. You shall send them to the outside of the camp. And they shall not defile their camps in the midst of which I dwell.
4 And the sons of Israel did so, and put them outside the camp. As Jehovah spoke to Moses, so the sons of Israel did.

[{ Lepers were covered in detail in Leviticus 13 and 14. The other forms of defilement are also bought up. Here the law is put into effect at this time.}]

5 And Jehovah spoke to Moses, saying,
6 Speak to the sons of Israel, man or woman, when they commit any of the sins of man, by committing a trespass against Jehovah, and that person is guilty:
7 Then they shall confess their sin which they have done. And he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add its fifth to it, and shall give it to him against whom he has been guilty.
8 And if a man has no kinsman to whom the guilt may be restored, the guilt which is restored shall be Jehovah's, a priest's, besides the ram of the atonement by which he makes atonement for him.
9 And every heave offering of all the holy things of the sons of Israel which they bring to the priest shall be his.
10 And any man's dedicated things shall become his, that which any man gives to the priest becomes his.

[{ Some of these things such as committing some sort of trespass against God, are perhaps better understood in Leviticus 27. But these verses certainly show the rights of a priest to receive in behalf of God, the things due to God. This would ensure the survival and thriving of the bureaucracy of God intended to promote and maintain the true worship of Jehovah. To complain or resist these commands with the excuse that the priest is making a good living from them is not valid. God authorizes the priest to profit from what is brought to God. To complain is to complain about God and what He has arranged to insure the survival of what is important to him. Neither let us lose sight of the fact that this ultimately benefited all Israel and us, too. }]

11 And Jehovah spoke to Moses, saying,
12 Speak to the sons of Israel, and you shall say to them, When any man's wife goes astray, and has committed a trespass against him,
13 and a man lies with her with semen, and it has been hidden from her husband's eyes, and is kept hidden, and she is defiled, and there is no other witness against her, and she has not been caught;|
14 and a spirit of jealousy has passed over him, and he has become jealous of his wife, and she has been defiled. Or, a spirit of jealousy has passed over him, and he has become jealous of his wife, and she has not become defiled:
15 then the man shall bring his wife in to the priest, and he shall bring in her offering for her, a tenth of an ephah of barley meal. He shall not pour oil on it, nor shall he put frankincense on it, for it is a food offering of jealousy, a food offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance.

[{ The wife may or may not have played around but if the man has become suspicious, he may institute a food offering of jealousy to test the matter out before God. Next details what is to follow. }]

[{ I am introducing John Gill's Expository which has a lot to say about the Numbers Chapter 5 food offering of jealousy. The part of scripture dealt with is in green and his comments are in black inside my red brackets. Gill tells us about what previous oral Jewish history and tradition have to hand down and say about what actually took place with this food offering of jealousy performed by the priest. The understanding they impart is very valuable if one is trying to make sense of it all. I feel it can only help. I could find nothing else that gives anywhere near as much enlightenment. }]

16 And the priest shall bring her near, and shall cause her to stand before Jehovah.
17 And the priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel. And the priest shall take of the dust which is on the tabernacle floor, and shall put it into the water.

[{ Ver. 17. And the priest shall take holy water,
&c.] Out of the laver, as the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, and so Jarchi and Aben Ezra:

in an earthen vessel;
which held half a log, and that was but a quarter of a pint, or three egg shells; for no more was assigned, to a suspected woman, according to the Misnah { Sotah, c. 2. sect. 2. Menachot, c. 9. sect. 3. }. Some say only a fourth part: an earthen vessel was made use of, as everything vile and mean was in this affair:

and of the dust that is in the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put [it] into the water;
first the water was put in, and then the dust, as Ben Gersom observes: there was a place a cubit square, where was a marble table, and a ring fixed in it, and when he lifted it up he took dust from under it, and put it so as it might be upon the top of the water { Misnah: Sotah, c. 2. sect. 2. }; which was used, either, as the Targum of Jonathan suggests, because the end of all flesh is to come to dust, and so to put her in mind of her original and her end; and in like manner the earthen vessel might signify, that she would be broke to pieces as that vessel; as also it might direct her thoughts to the tempter, by the influence of whose temptation she had been drawn into this sin, dust being the serpent's food; and this being taken off the floor of the tabernacle, might add to the veneration of it, and make it more solemn and awful to drink of it. }]

18 And the priest shall cause the woman to stand before Jehovah, and shall uncover the woman's head, and shall give into her hand the food offering of memorial; it is a food offering of jealousy; and in the priest's hand shall be the bitter waters which cause the curse.

[{ Ver. 18. And the priest shall set the woman before the Lord,
&c.] In the east of the tabernacle, with her face to the west, where was the holy of holies, so Ben Gersom; but not immediately for they had her from place to place, as Jarchi says, till she was weary, and her mind disturbed, that she might confess; and if she said, I am defiled, she rent the writing of her dowry, and went out; but if she said, I am pure, they brought her to the eastern gate, the gate of Nicanor, for there they made women suspected of adultery to drink the waters { Sotah, c. 1. sect. 5. }:

and uncover the woman's head;
as a token of her immodesty and non-subjection to her husband, and that she might be seen by all, to cause shame in her: according to the Misnah { Sotah, c. 1. sect. 5, 6. }, the priest took off her clothes, and loosed her hair&emdash;if she was clothed with white garments, he clothed her with black; if she had on her ornaments of gold, chains, earrings, or rings, he took them away from her, that she might be unseemly, and whoever would might come and look at her:

and put the offering of memorial into her hands, which [is] the jealousy offering;
to weary her, as Jarchi says, that if perhaps her mind was disturbed she would confess; and so in the Misnah { Sotah, c. 2. sect. 1. } it is said, that her husband put this offering into her hands to weary her; but the true reason here seems to be, that it might appear to be her own offering:

and the priest shall have in his hand the bitter water that causeth the curse; not that the water was bitter of itself, for it was the water out of the laver, and had nothing in it but the dust of the floor of the tabernacle; though some think some bitter thing was put into it, so Ben Gersom, as wormwood; but it is so called from the effects of it on those that were guilty; it produced sad effects in them, bitter and distressing, and made them appear to be accursed ones, for it was not bitter till it entered, #Nu 5:24; whereas it was not so to the innocent, nor attended with any such consequence to them; so that there was nothing in the water itself, but its efficacy was divine and supernatural. }]

19 And the priest shall cause her to swear and shall say to the woman, If no man has lain with you, and if you have not turned aside to impurity under your husband, be free from these bitter waters which cause the curse.
20 And you, if you have turned aside under your husband, and if you have been defiled, and any man besides your husband has given his semen to you,
21 then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with an oath of cursing, and the priest shall say to the woman: Jehovah shall make you a curse and an oath among your people, when Jehovah makes your thigh to fall away, and your belly to swell,

[{ Ver. 21. Then the priest shall charge the woman with an oath of cursing,
&c.] An oath which has a curse annexed to it, if taken falsely, which was to be pronounced upon the woman if guilty:

and the priest shall say unto the woman; pronouncing the imprecation or curse upon her, she having taken the oath, should she be guilty of the crime suspected of, and she had swore concerning:

the Lord make thee a curse, and an oath among the people; accursed according to the oath taken; or let this be the form of an oath and imprecation used by the people, saying, if I have done so and so, let me be accursed as such a woman, or let not that happen to me, as did to such a woman, so Jarchi:

when the Lord doth make thy thigh to rot, and thy belly to swell; upon drinking the bitter waters; but though these things followed upon that, yet not as the natural cause of them, for they are ascribed to the Lord, and to a supernatural and miraculous power of his, which went along with the drinking of them. }]

22 And these waters which cause the curse shall go into your bowels to cause the belly to swell, and the thigh to fall. And the woman shall say, Amen, amen.

[{ Ver. 22. And this water that causeth the curse,
&c.] Upon the drinking of which the curse follows, if guilty:

shall go into thy bowels; and there operate and produce the above effects, which are repeated again to inject terror:

to make [thy] belly to swell, and [thy] thigh to rot; here ends the form of the oath, which begins #Nu 5:19;

and the woman shall say, amen, amen; so be it; let it be as pronounced, if I am guilty; which, as Aben Ezra observes, is repeated for the sake of confirmation; though the Jewish writers commonly understand it as respecting various things, the oath and the curse, the thing charged with, and the persons suspected of { Misn. ib. sect. 5. Targum Jon. & Jerus. & Jarchi in loc. }. }]

23 And the priest shall write these curses in a book, and shall blot them with the bitter waters.

[{ Ver. 23. And the priest shall write these curses in a book,
&c.] The above curses imprecated on herself by an oath; the words and the letters of them were written at length, in a scroll of parchment; and, as some say also, her name, but not her double amen to them { Misnah, ut supra, (Sotah, c. 2) sect. 3. }:

and he shall blot [them] out with the bitter water:
ash them out with it, and into it, or scrape them off of the parchment into it. }]

24 And he shall cause the woman to drink the bitter water which cause the curse. And the water which cause the curse shall enter into her for bitter things.

[{ Ver. 24. And he shall cause the woman to drink the bitter water that causeth the curse,
&c.]. Having the curse imprecated upon herself, if guilty, scraped into it; and this she was obliged to drink, whether she would or not; so it is said, if the roll is blotted out, and she says I am defiled, the water is poured out, and her offering is scattered in the place of ashes; if the roll is blotted out, and she says I will not drink, then force her, and make her drink whether she will or no { Misnah, ut supra, (Sotah) c. 3. sect. 3.}:

and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her, [and become] bitter;
produce the sad and bitter effects mentioned. }]

25 And the priest shall take the food offering of jealousy out of the woman's hand, and shall wave the food offering before Jehovah, and shall bring it near to the altar.

[{ Ver. 25. Then the priest shall take the jealousy offering out of the woman's hand,
&c.] Which she was obliged to hold in her hand while the above rites and ceremonies were performed; which was very heavy, being an omer of barley flour, a measure about three quarts, which was put into an Egyptian basket made of small palm tree twigs: and this was put into her hands to weary her, as before observed, that, having her mind distressed, she might the sooner confess her crime:

and shall wave the offering before the Lord:
backwards and forwards, upwards and downwards, as Jarchi; who also observes, that the woman waved with him, for her hand was above the hand of the priest so the tradition is,

"he (her husband) took her offering out of the Egyptian basket, and put it into a ministering vessel, and gave it into her hand, and the priest put his hand under hers, and waved it { Misnah, ut supra, (Sotah) c. 3. sect. 1. }:"

and offer it upon the altar:
this was the bringing of it to the southwest corner of the altar, as Jarchi says, before he took a handful out of it, as in other meat offerings. }]

26 And the priest shall take a handful of the food offering, its memorial, and shall burn it as incense on the altar. And afterward he shall cause the woman to drink the water.

[{ Ver. 26. And the priest shall take an handful of the offering, [even] the memorial thereof,
&c.] For good or evil, according as her works were, as Aben Ezra observes; a memorial for good, if innocent, and a memorial for evil, if guilty:

and burn [it] upon the altar;
as the handful of other meat offerings used to be, #Le 1:2;

and afterwards shall cause the woman to drink the water;
oblige her to it; having proceeded thus far, and no confession made, namely, an oath taken, the curses of it written in a scroll and scraped into the waters, and the jealousy offering waved and offered. }]

27 And when he shall cause her to drink the water, then it shall be, if she has been defiled and has committed a trespass against her husband, the water which cause the curse shall go into her for bitter things; and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away, and the woman shall become a curse in the midst of her people.

[{ Ver. 27. And when he hath made her to drink the water,
&c.] For, as before observed, and here by Jarchi again, if she says I will not drink it, after the roll is blotted out, they oblige her, and make her drink it whether she will or not, unless she says I am defiled:

then it shall come to pass, [that] if she be defiled, and have done trespass against her husband;
or has committed adultery:

that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her, [and become] bitter;
the water drank by her, and having the curses scraped into it, shall enter into her, and operate and produce bitter and dreadful effects:

and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall rot;
not through any natural virtue in the water, or what is put into it, either the dust of the floor of the tabernacle, or the scrapings of the parchment roll, these could have no physical influence to produce such effects; but they must be ascribed to a supernatural cause, the power and curse of God attending this draught. A certain Jewish writer { R. Samuel Tzartzah, Mekor Chayim, fol. 91. 3. } says, though very falsely, that the priest put poison into the water, which produced such effects; but then, how could an innocent woman escape the effects of it? that must be allowed to be miraculous and supernatural, was it so; but there is no manner of reason to believe that anything of this kind was put into it.

The Jews say { Misn. Sotah, c. 3. sect. 4. }, as soon, or before she had made an end of drinking: the water, the effects appeared; her face turned pale immediately, her eyes bolted out, and she was filled with veins, her body swelled, and they called out, Cast her out, cast her out, that she may not defile the court. And the text seems to intimate, as if the operation was immediate; yea, moreover, they say { Ibid. c. 5. sect. 1. }, that as the waters searched her, so they searched him (the adulterer), because it is said twice, "shall enter, shall enter"; and that the same effects appeared in him as in her, but in neither, unless the husband was innocent; for if he was not pure from the same sin himself, the waters would not search his wife { T. Bab. Sotah, fol. 28. 1. Gersom in loc. } hence they say { Misn. Sotah, c. 2. sect. 9. }, when adulterers increased (under the second temple) the bitter waters ceased, according to #Ho 4:14; see #Mt 12:39.

This practice has been imitated by the Heathens; the river Rhine , according to Julian the emperor { Orat. 2. p. 151. Ep. 16. p. 131. }, tried the legitimacy of children; and so lakes have been used for the trial of perjury and unchastity, as the Stygian lake for perjury, and another of the same name near Ephesus for unchastity; into which, if persons suspected of adultery descended, having the form of an oath hanging about their necks, if they were pure, the waters stood unmoved, but if corrupt, they swelled up to their necks, and covered the tablet on which the oath was written { Vid. Salden. Otia, l. 1. Exercitat. 6. sect. 24. }. The priestesses of a certain deity being obliged to live a single life, were tried by drinking bullocks' blood, upon which, if false to their oath and corrupt, they immediately died, as Pausanias { Achaica, sive, l. 7. p. 450. } relates; and Macrobius { Saturnal. l. 5. c. 19.} speaks of some lakes in Sicily, the inhabitants called the Cups, to which recourse was had when persons were suspected of any ill, and where an oath was taken of them; if the person swore truly, he departed unhurt, but if falsely, he immediately lost his life in the lake.

Philostratus { Vita Apollonii, l. 1. c. 4. } relates of a water near Tyana, a city in Cappadocia, sacred to Jupiter, which the inhabitants call Asbamaea, which to those that kept their oaths was placid and sweet, but to perjured persons the reverse; it affected their eyes, hands, and feet, and seized them with dropsies and consumptions; nor could they depart from the water, but remained by it, mourning their sad case, and confessing their perjury: but what comes nearest to this usage of the Jews is a custom at marriages among the savages at Cape Breton { Genuine Letters and Memoirs relating to the Isle of Cape Breton, &c.}: at a marriage feast, two dishes of meat are brought to the bridegroom and bride in two "ouragans" (basins made of the bark of a tree), and the president of the feast addresses himself to the bride thus,

"and thou that art upon the point of entering into a respectable state, know, that the nourishment thou art going to take forebodes the greatest calamities to thee, if thy heart is capable of harbouring any ill design against thy husband, or against thy nation: shouldest thou ever be led astray by the caresses of a stranger; or shouldest thou betray thy husband, and thy country, the victuals contained in this "ouragan" will have the effects of a slow poison, with which thou wilt be tainted from this very instant; but if, on the other hand, thou remainest faithful to thy husband, and to thy country, if thou wilt never insult the one for his defect, nor give a description of the other to the enemy, thou wilt find this nourishment both agreeable and wholesome."

Now if these relations can be credited, then much more this of the bitter waters, for though there was something wonderful and supernatural in them, yet nothing incredible:

and the woman shall be a curse among her people:
the time she lives; but then all this while she was looked upon as an accursed person, and despised and shunned by all. }]

28 And if the woman has not been defiled, and is pure, then she shall be clean and shall conceive seed.

[{ Ver. 28. And if the woman be not defiled, but be clean,
&c.] If she is not guilty of adultery, but pure from that sin:

then she shall be free;
from the effects of the bitter water; they shall have no such influence upon her, but she shall be as soured and healthful as ever; nay, the Jewish writers say more so, that if she had any sickness or disease upon her she would now be freed from it { Maimon. Hilchot Sotah, c. 3. sect. 22.}; the Targum of Jonathan has it, her splendour shall shine, the brightness and beauty of her countenance:

and shall conceive seed;
a man child, as the same Targum; and the Jewish writers say, if she was barren before, now she would be fruitful; but no more is meant by it than that her husband should receive her gladly, and she should live comfortably with him hereafter, and the blessing of God would be upon her, which would still be a confirmation of her chastity. }]

29 This is the law of jealousies when a wife turns aside under her husband, and has been defiled;

[{ Ver. 29. This [is] the law of jealousies,
&c.] Which was appointed by God to deter wives from adultery, and preserve the people of Israel, the worshippers of him, from having a spurious brood among them; and to keep husbands from being cruel to their wives they might be jealous of, and to protect virtue and innocence, and to detect lewdness committed in the most secret manner; whereby God gave proof of his omniscience, that he had knowledge of the most private acts of uncleanness, and was the avenger of all such. The reasons why such a law was not made equally in favour of women, as of men, are supposed to be these: because of the greater authority of the man over the woman, which would seem to be lessened, if such a power was granted her; because marriage was not so much hurt, or so much damage came to families by the adultery of men, as of women; because women are more apt to be suspicious than men, and in those times more prone to adultery, through their eager desire of children, that they might not lie under reproach { Vid. Salden. ut supra, (Otia, l. 1. Exercitat. 6.) sect. 19.}:

when a wife goeth aside [to another] instead of her husband, and is defiled;
is suspected of going aside to another man, and is supposed to be defiled by him. }]

30 or when a spirit of jealousy passes over a man, and he has become jealous of his wife, then he shall cause the woman to stand before Jehovah, and the priest shall do to her all this law;
31 and the man shall be clean from sin, and the woman shall bear her iniquity.

[{ Ver. 31. Then shall the man be guiltless from iniquity,
&c.] Which otherwise he would not, by conniving at her loose way of living, and not reproving her for it, and bringing her either to repentance or punishment; and retaining and encouraging jealousy in his mind, without declaring it, and his reasons for it: the sense of the passage seems to be, that when a man had any ground for his suspicion and jealousy, and he proceeded according as this law directs, whether his wife was guilty or not guilty, no sin was chargeable on him, or blame to be laid to him, or punishment inflicted on him:

and the woman shall bear her iniquity;
the punishment of it, through the effects of the bitter waters upon her, if guilty; nor was her husband chargeable with her death, she justly brought it on herself: or if not guilty, yet as she had by some unbecoming behaviour raised such a suspicion in him, nor would she be reclaimed, though warned to the contrary, she for it justly bore the infamy of such a process; which was such, as Maimonides says { Moreh Nevochim, par. 3. c. 49. p. 499.}, that innocent women would give all that they had to escape it, and reckoned death itself more agreeable than that, as to be served as such a woman was; see Gill on "Nu 5:18". }]

[{ Usually, if a man becomes jealous, it could be because the woman has been behaving in a way that might inspire jealousy and give the husband reason to doubt. Her conduct ought to make her ponder. But in case the woman has been innocent and perhaps the husband a little too suspicious or paranoid, it can also serve to vindicate the woman and shame the man as well.

Perhaps all people should give concern to how their actions might be interpreted. Do we inspire confidence in our professed faith, convincing people that we really take our religion seriously or do people think we are phonies and pretenders? Do they doubt our devotion? Just as a flirtatious woman might cause a man to doubt, so too, if we do not act appropriately, we might cause people to doubt what we preach.

Also note that this "miracle" if you will, is written into the law. God will employ His supernatural force in this instance in order to maintain the sanctity of marriage and the family. Marriage and family are of the utmost concern to God which ought to give us all concern, for who wants to be on His bad side, right? Of course, that law is no longer in force today but its principles are. We might not go to a priest or a temple anymore, but we know that God hates cheaters, liars, and phonies who do not live up to what they profess, especially as regards to marriage and family. Knowing the exceptional enforcement God applied to  marriage loyalty and faithfulness, we ought to be more vigilant about keeping this law.

And we should never get the idea that this applies only to the woman. It would be absurd to think that God would be so ones-sided as to only require strict faithfulness from the woman only. If He is demanding of the woman, He will also be of the man. The death penalty is prescribed for either one that cheats. }]

Numbers 6 - 9
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Chapter 6:
1 And Jehovah spoke to Moses, saying,
2 Speak to the sons of Israel and you shall say to them, When a man or woman shall vow the special vow of a Nazarite, to be separated to Jehovah:
3 He shall separate from wine and fermented drink; he shall not drink vinegar of wine or vinegar of fermented drink; he shall not drink any juice of the grapes; and he shall not eat dry or moist grapes.
4 All the days of his separation he shall not eat from all that is made of the vine, from pressed grapes, even to the stem.
5 All the days of the vow of his separation, a razor shall not pass over his head; he shall be holy until all the days are fulfilled which he has separated to Jehovah. He shall allow the locks of the hair of his head to grow long.
6 All the days of his separation to Jehovah he shall not go near a dead person.
7 He shall not make himself unclean for his father, or for his mother, or for his brother, or for his sister, at their death; because his separation to his God is on his head.
8 All the days of his separation he shall be holy to Jehovah.
9 And of any man dies very suddenly beside him, and he defiles his consecrated head, then he shall shave his head on the day of his cleansing, on the seventh day he shall shave it.
10 And on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons to the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
11 And the priest shall prepare one for a sin offering, and one for a burnt offering, and shall atone for him, because he sinned by reason of the dead body. And he shall dedicate his head on that day.
12 And he shall separate to Jehovah the days of his consecration, and shall bring a he lamb of the first year for a guilt offering. But the former days shall be void, for his separation was defiled.

[{ A man or a woman could, for what ever reason they might have, make themselves particularly holy and dedicated, and become for whatever time they vow, a Nazarite. They must fulfill the full time period vowed. If they fail, even by accident, the time served does not count. The entire period must be fully completed and served continually.

Samson was a well known judge who had been dedicated to Jehovah for a period of unknown length or perhaps permanently, as a Nazarite. So we can better understand why he lost his power granted to him in his dedication as a Nazarite. He could have lost that power in any number of ways as you can see but is was his hair getting cut that proved to be his downfall. Most interesting to me was that there was a procedure in place for reinstituting the vow of a Nazarite. But when Samson was blinded and enslaved and without power, God evidently understood the impossibility of carrying out the rededication and so God allowed the benefit of the doubt and assumed good faith and after a time recognized Samson again as a Nazarite and gave back power to Samson. This enabled Samson to avenge some of his guilt upon his enemies, though he gave up his own life in the process, perhaps as his share of the guilt for being perhaps a little bit foolish and fraternizing with the enemy.

But one can not, if they are honest, help but recognizer the God blessed a guy who took gave up his own life in carrying out a last act of Godly ordained vengeance. One could see it as an act of suicide quite easily, though with some justification. }]

13 And this is the law of the Nazarite: when the days of his separation are fulfilled, bring him in to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation,
14 and he shall offer his offering to Jehovah, one he lamb of the first year, a perfect one, for a burnt offering; and one she lamb, a yearling, a perfect one, for a sin offering; and one ram, a perfect one, for a peace offering;
15 and a basket of unleavened cakes of flour, cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and their food offering, and their drink offerings.
16 And the priest shall bring them before Jehovah, and shall offer his sin offering and his burnt offering.
17 And he shall offer the ram for a sacrifice of peace offering to Jehovah, with the basket of unleavened cakes. And the priest shall offer its food offering and its drink offering.
18 And the Nazarite shall shave the head of his separation at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall take the hair of the head of his separation and shall put it on the fire which is under the sacrifice of the peace offering.
19 And the priest shall take the boiled shoulder from the ram, and one unleavened cake out of the basket, and one unleavened wafer, and shall put them on the palms of the Nazarite after he has shaved his separation.
20 And the priest shall wave them, a wave offering before Jehovah. It is holy to the priest, besides the breast of the wave offering, and besides the leg of the heave offering. And afterward the Nazarite shall drink wine.
21 This is the law of the Nazarite who vows his offering to Jehovah for his separation, besides that which his hand may get. According to his vow which he vows, so he shall do by the law of his separation.

[{ As you can see, one did not have to remain a Nazarite forever. It could be for a limited time and purpose. But when it was finished, offerings had to be made, which became those of the priest. You might look at these offerings as payment due the government of God, who the priest was the employee of, who had to be paid to maintain the government of God. This is how Jehovah ordered it. Who are we to argue? But unlike governments of today, God's government, rulership, and domain are holy and for our benefit. }]

22 And Jehovah spoke to Moses, saying,
23 Speak to Aaron and to his sons, saying, In this way you shall bless the sons of Israel, saying to them:
24 Jehovah bless you and keep you;
25 Jehovah cause His face to shine on you, and be gracious to you;
26 Jehovah lift up His face to you, and give you peace.
27 So they shall put My name on the sons of Israel, and I Myself will bless them.

Chapter 7: The tribes bring their offerings to Jehovah. There is a long list of names and details of offerings. 89 verses.

Chapter 8: Gods separates the Levites for Himself in service to Him. We earlier read of these directions, but now those directions which Moses first received are put into action. This records the action being carried out. It might seem like a repetition but it is not, in the strictest sense. But for our benefit and back then, too, it was a repetition of the instructions, but in the first instance, only known to Moses but now to everyone. 8:23-25 is noteworthy.

Chap. 8:
23 And Jehovah spoke to Moses, saying,
24 This is that which pertains to the Levites: from twenty five years old and upward he shall go in to do the service and the works of the tabernacle of the congregation.
25 And from a son of fifty years they shall return from the service of the work, and shall not serve any more. 26 But he shall serve with his brothers in the tabernacle of the congregation, to keep the charge; only he shall not serve at a service. So you shall do to the Levites concerning their charge.

[{ I find this one rather interesting. Levites had to serve as labor in the temple from 25 to 50. They had to be old enough but not too old and too old was rather young by our standards of today, but not by God's standards. Over 50, then such a man would serve in a sot of supervisory capacity, not in heavy or manual labor. God's orders! Do we work old people to death today, drive them to near the point of death? It would seem quite possible. Of course, many jobs old people do are not necessarily strenuous but neither are they allowed to go a a slower pace, such as in a fast food joint, where you are likely to see old people working and on their feet the whole time. I think we are slave drivers compared to God. }]

Chapter 9: Up to 9:15 speaks of observing the passover, which we have previously read about.

Chap. 9:
15 And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up, the cloud covered the tabernacle, even the tabernacle of the testimony. And at evening there was on the tabernacle the appearance of fire, until morning.
16 so it was always; the cloud covered it, and the appearance of fire by night.
17 And whenever the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, then after that the sons of Israel pulled up stakes; and in the place where the cloud abode, there the sons of Israel encamped.
18 By the mouth of Jehovah the sons of Israel pulled up; and by the mouth of Jehovah they encamped. All the days that the cloud remained over the tabernacle, they remained in camp.
19 And when the cloud tarried over the tabernacle many days, then the sons of Israel kept the charge of Jehovah, and did not pull up.
20 And when the cloud was over the tabernacle many days, by the mouth of Jehovah they encamped, and by the mouth of Jehovah they pulled up stakes.
21 And so when the cloud was there from evening until morning, when the cloud was taken up in the morning, then they pulled up. Whether by day or by night, when the cloud was taken up, then they pulled up stakes
22 Whether two days, or a month, or days, when the cloud tarried over the tabernacle, to remain over it, the sons of Israel remained in camp, and did not pull up. And when it was lifted up, they pulled up stakes.
23 By the mouth of Jehovah they encamped, and by the mouth of Jehovah they pulled up stakes. They kept the charge of Jehovah, by the mouth of Jehovah, by the hand of Moses.

[{ Even while exiled in the desert, the miraculous signs and wonders of God, irrefutable and indisputable, remained with His temple, at that time in the form of a tent/tabernacle. Jehovah never fully abandoned the cause. He remained with Israel, even if He did not like the current crop/generation of followers. New generations would follow and God wanted to maintain the cause to its ultimate destiny, the introduction of the Messiah, his sacrifice, and a new covenant with those who continued to follow God and His son after that.

No matter how many times He would have started over, it would have ended up the same as humans are not very good at obeying God. So Jehovah made do with what He had, knowing He would have to endure disobedience and disrespect many times before the time for the Messiah to be introduced would arrive. }]


Numbers 10 - 29
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Chapter 10: Israel is instructed on trumpet signals to help move the camps. Israel moves.

Chapter 11: Israel cries for meat but sins and is punished.

Chapter 12: Miriam and Aaron speak against Moses. Miriam is punished and after forgiven.

Chap. 12:
5 And Jehovah came down in the pillar of the cloud and stood at the tabernacle door, and called Aaron and Miriam. And both of them came out.
6 And He said, Now hear My words, If your prophet is of Jehovah, I shall make Myself known to him in an appearance; I will speak to him in a dream.
7 It is not so with My servant Moses! He is faithful in all My house.
8 I speak to him mouth to mouth, and by an appearance, and not in riddles; and he carefully looks upon the form of Jehovah. So why have you not been afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?
9 And the anger of Jehovah glowed against them, and He left.

[{ Jehovah normally is quite reserved, even when dealing with a prophet. At best, He might appear in a vision or dream, often giving messages in symbolic form or puzzles. He made it clear to Aaron and Miriam that Moses was so favored that God spoke plainly, rather than in symbols and riddles and spoke directly rather than by remote vision or dream. Moses had a very favored position with God. Only Jesus would ever have it better. Aaron and Miriam had to understand this, given their questioning Moses, who God caused great works to take place through. God especially punishes Miriam by temporarily giving her leprosy and only removes it at the request of Moses, or otherwise it likely would have remained forever.

What I would add to this is that what took place through Moses was exceedingly outstanding, as after all, a covenant, a contract, a binding deal, would be made between Israel and God by this mediator Moses. So what would take place had to be exceptional. God does not make deals easily or casually. And not one could come along and claim that God was updating or changing the deal unless they could produce the same number and degree of works, miracles, signs and portents as took place through Moses. Jesus would qualify as one who had the authority of God to install a new deal, a new covenant. If anyone else is to make such a great brag and claim, they would also need to be able to do what Moses and Jesus did. Many have made such claims but never had the works to back it up. So we ignore those imposters. }]

Chapter 13: God sends spies into Canaan, all but 2 bring back a bad report.

Chapter 14: Israel is discouraged and complains. God says they will wander 40 years in the desert until they are all dead except the 2 who said good among the spies.

Chapter 15: God gives instructions for sacrifices when they finally enter the land promised. A man violates the Sabbath and is executed.

Chapter16: Korah, Dathan, and Abiram along with 250 leaders, complain about their small role in the assembly of Israel. God kills them all. The people complain about that so God kills those who complain, too. 49 And those who died by the plague were fourteen thousand and seven hundred, besides those who died for the matter of Korah.

It would have been more but Moses had Aaron quickly make offerings to atone for the sin of the people and stop the plague killing them all.

Chap. 16:
36 And Jehovah spoke to Moses, saying,
37 Speak to Eleazar, the son of Aaron, the priest, and he shall lift up the fire-pans from the midst of the burning, and shall scatter the fire yonder, for they have become holy,
38 the fire-pans of these sinners against their own souls. And they shall make of them spreadout plates, a covering for the altar, for they have brought them near before Jehovah, and they are holy. And they shall become a sign to the sons of Israel.
39 And Eleazar the priest took the bronze fire-pans, which they who were burned had brought near, and they spread them out, a covering for the altar,
40 a memorial to the sons of Israel, so that an alien who is not of the seed of Aaron shall not draw near to offer incense before Jehovah, and shall not be as Korah, and as his company; as Jehovah had spoken by the hand of Moses to him.

[{ You will note again that it was not Moses or Aaron who wanted to see the people punished and appeased God so that He would not continue to kill. But far worse, Korah, Dathan, and Abiram showed not respect for the incredible miracles that were taking place only by the obvious power of God and by no other way could they take place. It was not Moses they ignored, it was Jehovah, Himself, and His great power. So God judged them where they stood and their day of Judgment, their "Armageddon," came a little early. If one sins against the holy spirit (the presence of or manifestation of), there is no hope for them - EVER!

Indeed, the manifestations of the spirit of God can be a blessing or cursing. You definitely do not mess around in the presence of God manifest in the display of His powers. And I would add, happy are those who do not see and yet believe. They clearly have more faith than those who say, "show us a sign or miracle." Or put another way, be careful for what you ask for, you might not be able to handle it if you get it. Just ask Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. So 16 is a very noteworthy chapter.}]

Chapter 17: God has Aaron and all the other tribes place rods in the tabernacle, 12 rods for the 12 tribes. Aaron's blossoms and the others do not. God shows who He chooses and has Aaron's rod put in the tabernacle to keep as another sign and testimony for Israel to always see.

Chapter 18: God repeats the assignments and entitlements of the Levites and the sons of Aaron.

Chapter 19: Red heifer offering and cleansing those who touched the dead or anything associated with their dying.

Chapter 20: Israel comes into Kadesh, Moses sins by the water of Meribah, (the Waters of Strife &endash; GLT). Moses asks Edom to let Israel pass through but Edom refuses so Israel goes another way. They come to Mt. Hor and Aaron is to die there at the top of the mountain and is mourned after.

Chapter 21: Israel is attacked and retaliates, wiping out attackers and their cities. Israel moves on and complains about the "light bread," the manna. Jehovah sends snakes to poison them. A bronze serpent is made to save those who look on it. Israel asks Amorites if they can pass through, but Amorites say no. Israel conquers their cities and resides in them. Og of Bashan attacks and Israel conquers and takes his land as well.

21:14 therefore, it is said in the Book of the Wars of Jehovah: Waheb in Suphah, the torrents of Arnon,

21:25 And Israel took all these cities. And Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Amorite, in Heshbon and in all its daughter villages.

Chapter 22: Balak, king of Moab, seeks Balaam, son of Beor, possibly a Midianite and relative of Moses' father in law, to curse Israel but Balaam, seeking out God, is only allowed by God to bless Israel and not listen to Balak and Moab. Balak had offered Balaam good money, so to speak, to curse Israel. Balaam was willing to try.

Chapter 23: Balaam and Balak keep inquiring of Jehovah, hoping He will change His mind. He does not. Note what God replied through Balaam:

23:18 And he took up his parable and said, Rise up, Balak, and hear; give ear to me, son of Zippor. 19 God is not a man that He should lie, or a son of man that He should repent. Has He said, and shall He not do it? And has He spoken, and shall He not make it good?"

23:4 because they did not meet you with bread and with water in the way when you came out of Egypt; and because they hired against you Balaam the son of Beor, from Pethor of Mesopotamia, to curse you.

Chapter 24: Balaam pronounces blessings upon Israel.

Chapter 25: Women of Moab seduce men of Israel into fornication. Phineas kills an Israelite who brings in a Moabite woman to have sex with her right in the camp of Israel, with the pillar of cloud hovering over the tabernacle. God sends a plague that kills 24,000 men of Israel.

God commands Israel to strike Moab for wishing bad on Israel and causing Israel to sin.

Chapter 26: 601,000 men of Israel are numbered for war. Not one of them had been among those numbered the first time in Sinai 40 years earlier, as those had all died out in the wilderness by the order of Jehovah. A new generation who hopefully would be a little more respectful toward the presence of God manifest through Moses.

Chapter 27: Moses is told it is almost his time to die and that he is to appoint Joshua to lead Israel but to have Eleazar the high priest to confirm Joshua by the Urim, so that no one can question the appointment. Joshua is "charged" as commander.

Chap. 27:
8 And you shall speak to the sons of Israel, saying, When a man dies, and has no son, then you shall pass on his inheritance to his daughter.
9 And if he has no daughter, then you shall give his inheritance to his brothers.
10 And if he has no brothers, then you shall give his possession to his father's brothers.
11 And if his father has no brothers then you shall give his inheritance to his nearest relative, of his family. And he shall own it, and it shall be a statute of judgment to the sons of Israel, as Jehovah has commanded Moses.

 [{ God went to great lengths to preserve the genealogy/lineage of each man, so that the lineage of Jesus would also be clearly recognized so that there would be no dispute about his qualifications as prophecies dictated that Jesus the Messiah/Christ would be through the tribe of Judah, by David, etc.

And preserving a lineage also meant preserving the land which they would need to live off of. God made sure that each family would always have their means of living and support. Contrast that with our system in the USA today where nothing is inherited. You have to earn everything before you can have anything. The problem is that in order to afford anything, you will likely spend years earning it before you have it. Or pay outrageous credit interest in the meantime. But the need to be able to marry, reproduce, raise and nurture kids are immediate needs while young and should not be put off. God granted rights and a good start for a family. Yes, a family and reproduction were protected rights under God's law. Protected by guaranteeing a means of living and support free from accounting to an employer, which is much more like a master/slave relationship and not the independent one granted by God by having one's own land to live off of. The USA has no such rights.

To put this into plain terms, God required not only sustenance and survival, but also freedom and independence from servitude and slavery. If one fell into circumstances of slavery, ti would only be for a limited time, till the next Jubilee came along whereby slaves were freed. The USA can not begin to compete with that, by any means. We have no protection from abusive employers who we have to answer to at all times in all ways. We have no job guarantee or protection. God is a thousand times more generous and kind that the masters we serve (are forced to serve) today. If we fall into debt, it can last forever, especially if it is a student loan or other such debt. There is not grace period of forgiveness of debt every 7 years. Read it and weep, people. Your harshly abused slaves, whether you like it or not. Its a fact. It is the truth! }]

Chapters 28-29: God gives Moses things to remind Israel of.


Numbers 30
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Chapter 30:
1 And Moses spoke to the heads of the tribes of the sons of Israel, saying, This is the thing which Jehovah has commanded:
2 When a man vows a vow to Jehovah, or has sworn an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break his word; he shall do all that has gone out of his mouth.
3 And when a woman vows a vow to Jehovah, and has bound a bond in the house of her father in her youth,
4 and her father has heard her vow, and her bond with which she has bound her soul, and her father has remained silent as to her, then all her vows shall stand; and every bond with which she has bound her soul shall stand.
5 But if her father has prohibited her in the day he heard, none of her vows and her bond with which she has bound her soul shall stand. And Jehovah will forgive her because her father prohibited her.
6 And if she belongs to a husband, and her vows are on her, or a rash utterance on her lips with which she has bound her soul,
7 and her husband has heard, and in the day he heard he has remained silent as to her, then her vows shall stand, and her bond with which she has bound her soul shall stand.
8 And if in the day her husband hears, he prohibits her, then he has broken her vow which is on her, and the rash utterance of her lips with which she has bound her soul. And Jehovah will forgive her.
9 And as to the vow of a widow, or her that is divorced, all that she has bound on her soul shall be established on her.
10 And if she has vowed in the house of her husband, or bound a bond on her soul with an oath,
11 and her husband has heard, and has remained silent as to her, and he has not prohibited her, then all her vows shall be established, and every bond with which she has bound her soul shall stand.
12 And if her husband has certainly broken them in the day he heard, none of the utterance of her lips concerning her vows, or concerning the bond of her soul, shall stand; her husband has broken them. And Jehovah will forgive her.
13 Every vow and every oath, any bond to humble a soul, her husband shall establish it, or her husband shall break it.
14 And if her husband is altogether silent at her from day to day, then he has established all her vows or all her bonds which are on her; he has established them; for he remained silent as to her in the day he heard.
15 And if he at all breaks them after he hears, then he has borne her iniquity.
16 These are the statutes which Jehovah has commanded Moses between a man and his wife, between a father and his daughter in her youth in the house of her father.

[{ No doubt that today this might not sit right with many people. A woman might typically respond, "You don't own me!" But according to the Bible/Law, he does.

One needs to understand how God set this up. A woman was created for man, as a ehlper and complement to him. In this arrangement, the man was to be the head of the couple. One can not have 2 bosses for there will surely be serious friction and conflict sooner or later. With the man appointed as the head, he is given the right to overule the woman. This does not mean that he always should, but only that in the event the vow is unreasonable or puts undue hardship on the family, the man can nullify that vow. God sees that as a right man should have. God will not have the man's authority and prerogatives undermined. It does not mean the woman is inferior or even wrong but that harmony must be maintained and the pecking order maintained for peace and proper procedure. A woman would, of course, have the right to defend her vow and ask the husband to reconsider but the final decision must be with the man, just as a judge and court must have the final decision in cases of law, rather than letting individual opposed citizens do as they all please, causing conflict, strife, and even chaos.

But if a husband should say nothing about a woman's vow, then it shall stick and he can not later say something because it is now inconvenient at that time. He may speak at the first utterance or forever hold his peace. The rightness or wrong of something must be determined immediately and the decision binding. It would be the same with a contract. Once you sign it, you are obligated.

This is further demonstrated in the Law by principles such as rape. In God's law, if you are to claim a rape, you must act appropriately immediately, making your displeasure and disapproval and resistance known and felt such as by a scream or great protest and pleading. If it takes you the morning after or 2 days to decide it was a rape, then it is too late.

God wants us to be decisive and live up to what we vow, pledge, or otherwise agree to. Let your yes mean yes and your no mean no.}]

Numbers 31-35
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Chapter 31:
God orders Moses and Israel to destroy the Midianites for having caused Israel to sin. Midian and Moab seem to be mixed together or share territory. 12,000 sent out and they kill all the men and preserve the rest along with lots of spoil. God tells them to kill all the women who have been with a man as these were some of the many who caused Israel to sin and 24,000 to die. God then tells them to make offerings from the spoil to the temple and priesthood.

Chapter 32:
Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh ask for land on the east/right side of the Jordan, before crossing the Jordan river. They agree to send their fighting men over the Jordan and not return until every tribe has received their inheritance. So God and Moses agree and give them the land to the east of the Jordan river as their inheritance. Those they conquered and the cities are listed

Chapter 33:
Moses writes down the entire journey of Israel from Egypt to the present at the side of the Jordan, near Jericho. The following warning ends it.

Chap. 33:
53 And you shall possess the land, and live in it, for I have given you the land, to possess it.
54 And you shall inherit the land by lot, by your families. You shall increase the inheritance to the many, and you shall diminish the inheritance to the few; wherever the lot falls out to him, it is his. You shall inherit by the tribes of your fathers.
55 And if you will not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you, then it shall be, those whom you let remain of them shall be thorns in your eyes, and as goads in your sides. And they will vex you on the land in which you are living.
56 And it shall be, as I thought to do to them, so I shall do to you.

[{ This is actually a very important passage for it shows us how God sought to preserve the rights of His people and their preservation and sustenance by protecting their right to land, from which food and life would result. The right to sustenance and living is absolute. And being granted land allowed a man to be independent in his exercise of his won will and controlling his own destiny without having to answer to someone else.

The typical system today such as in the USA as well as most other countries in the world is that you do not have a right to independence and ownership of land. If you can even afford land, it is not right and the land is taxed so that you do not really won it but rent it and pay a portion of your income, the equivalent of your harvest, to the landlord over you, the government. And most people can not grow anywhere near enough food from their property to sustain themselves. Most are employed by businesses whose bosses or managers tell you what to do and you have no choice about it. That is called slavery in the Bible but we call it employment at will. But when you have to answer to others and are at their will and mercy, you are not living as god wanted you to be able to live. God's way is clearly superior.

If you want to start a family, you may have to go heavily into debt in order to get a home on credit, where you will pay outrageous interest and live in debt most of your life. Some forego marriage or kids due to the expense. Debt is bondage and slavery. God grants freedom and independence as rights of birth. Can you imagine that? Imagine that we were born with the right to land to build a house and grow food. Our obtaining land is very expensive and continually taxed/rented and not enough to avoid having to work for someone else. I believe God is far more generous and decent about making a living, having a family, and remaining free and independent of others.

We might also note that territories and inheritances were expanded or contracted according to birth rates and death rates and population growth or shrinkage. Any surviving lineage could expand or diminish and the territory to families and tribes adjusted accordingly. Land was apportioned in lots. Additionally, as Israel conquered the Canaanites and took over their territory, due to Israel's population growth, then Israel could expand into these territories with lots being apportioned to the family lines that needed them.

I assume that children would have to move from parents in order to get a parcel of land to live on, since neighbors already owned and lived on adjacent land. When a territory was filled out, they had permission by God to expand by war with foreign in habitants. It is God who judged the Canaanites and not Israel. God has that right. Israel was granted that right. Those fighting wars today do not have God's direct authority or approval and in fact, may not have it, even though they claim it. God spoke through Moses by great signs and portents so that we could rely on their authenticity. Moses wrote the words of God down so that there would be no mistake later. We have no authority for war today as Christians. Moses prescribes the borders in the next chapter by the word of God. God knew that Israel would need no more than this for their use all the way to the coming of the messiah and so God decreed the boundaries to Moses. Moses also allotted the areas to be taken by each tribe of Israel.}]

Chapter 34:
Moses prescribes the borders of Israel.

Chapter 35: Cities of refuge


Numbers 36
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Chap. 36:
1 And the heads of the fathers of the families of the sons of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of the sons of Joseph, came near. And they spoke before Moses, and before the rulers, the heads of the fathers' houses of the sons of Israel.
2 And they said: Jehovah commanded my lord to give the land for inheritance by lot to the sons of Israel. And my lord was commanded by Jehovah to give the inheritance of our brother Zelophehad to his daughters.
3 And if they shall be for wives to one of the sons of the other tribes of the sons of Israel, then their inheritance will be taken away from the inheritance of our fathers and will be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which they shall belong. So it shall be taken away from the lot of our inheritance.
4 And when the Jubilee of the sons of Israel shall come, then their inheritance shall be added to the inheritance of the tribe to which they shall belong. So their inheritance will be taken away from the inheritance of the tribe of our fathers.
5 And Moses commanded the sons of Israel according to the mouth of Jehovah, saying, The tribe of the sons of Joseph speak right.
6 This is the thing which Jehovah has commanded concerning the daughters of Zelophehad, saying, Let them be wives to those good in their eyes, only let them be for wives to the family of the tribe of their father,
7 so no inheritance of the sons of Israel shall turn from tribe to tribe, for each one of the sons of Israel shall cling to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers.
8 And any daughter that possesses an inheritance from any tribe of the sons of Israel to one of the family of the tribe of her father is to become a wife of the family of the tribe of her father, so that the sons of Israel may each possess the inheritance of his father.
9 And the inheritance shall not turn from one tribe to another tribe. For the tribes of the sons of Israel shall each one cling to its own inheritance,
10 as Jehovah commanded Moses. So the daughters of Zelophehad did.
11 For Mahlah, Tirzah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Noah, Zelophehad's daughters, were for wives to their father's brothers' sons.
12 They were for wives to the families of the son of Manasseh the son of Joseph, and their inheritance was with the tribe of the family of their father.
13 These are the commandments and the judgments which Jehovah commanded by the hand of Moses to the sons of Israel in the plains of Moab, beside the Jordan, near Jericho.

[{ One might ask why God did not catch this Himself. He did. But He said nothing and waited to see if anyone would catch on to it. They did. God wants thinking reasoning people who use their own heads. He wanted them to understand that if they had a righteous cause, they need not fear approaching God. They needed to think about the law and how it is applied. this would make them more effective as they tried to understand and obey God's Law. Sadly, they would not always show such diligence in grasping the law as is evidenced by the Pharisees in Jesus' time.

What a contrast this is with most who rule over us today in government and the workplace. They do not like people who think for themselves and try to understand things for themselves. They have too much to fear in that. God does not fear examination with good motivations. }]

This concludes my commentary on the book of Numbers.

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