Created  May 24, 2013                          

                               Charles Taze Russell
                                           & The International Bible Students Association
                                                           & Jehovah's Witnesses

The Watchtower and the Masons

A Preliminary Investigation        A fresh look reveals NEW Insights into one of today's leading heresies.
by Fritz Springmeier

Contents                                       This is part 2 , chapters 8-14

Part 1 Part 2

1  STRANGE VIBES                                              1



4  PARALLEL'S IN THEIR BELIEFS                       35

5  SECRET SIGNALS?                                          77


7  RUSSELL & THE WINGED-SUN-DISK                111

  8  RUSSELL'S "MASONIC SERMON                     135

  9  AN ACTUAL MASONIC SERMON                      149


11  RUSSELL'S ZIONISM --MASONIC?                   177

12  RUTHERFORD & MASONRY                              183

13  A CHRISTIAN ANALYSIS                                  199

14  A FINAL LOOK                                                 209

                   PART 1  Chaps. 1-7

Chapter 8:        RUSSELL'S "MASONIC" SERMON
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Anyone can use a medical term. But if we read several books and collections of talks given by a particular man and this man consistently uses medical terms, then we can safely say that this man who speaks like a doctor has been associated with doctoring or medicine.

Likewise, when one reads Charles Taze Russell's books and sermons, and sees repeated hundreds of times the words mystery and secret, and one sees Masonic buzz words such as Grand Master, Great Architect of the Universe, the Order, Jehovah, light, priesthood, and initiated, one has to conclude there has been some association somewhere with the Masons.

The following sermon is the very first sermon of Russell's in a book called Pastor Russell's Sermons. In the book's index the titles show that this isn't the only sermon in the book with Masonic undertones. The rest of the chapter is the sermon reproduced.

>> I want to restate the obvious here, emphatically. Fritz has provided, except for pages 15-16, which are typed out, pages 5-17 of Russell's "Masonic" Sermon for a verify important purpose. "Russellites," otherwise known as Bible Students and IBSA, will not believe that Russell could have possibly been a Mason. They will be in total denial. I have had such experiences. As well, JWs will also be in denial and swear it is not true.

Below are the absolute and uncontestable facts in the form of his writing, fully printed and published in its printed from, where his wording is overwhelmingly Masonic, far beyond any dispute. Russell, if not a very high ranking Mason and very familiar with Masonic "lingo" (terminology, if you prefer), certainly had lots of help and coaching in writing such a "Masonic" piece to explain the Bible, of all things. Isn't Bible terminology enough? Since many consider Masons to be practically Satanic ( I know I do - naughty, aren't I?), why would anyone want to imitate them?

Now it can be admitted that the essence of what is in the Bible is often veiled from unbelievers and in this respect, it could be said to be a lot like Masonic traditions. But with a very important difference. Christians openly declare the meanings of the veiled secrets of God, hiding nothing from anyone or pretending to be something they are not. It is just that people do not believe us when we tell them. they can not see or understand what those literary symbols of the Bible really mean, even though we explain it. This is the brilliance and genius of God. He lets us know who can see and who can not. That makes it much easier for us, doesn't it?

So pay careful attention to the next 13 pages so that you can see Russell really was Masonic in his references and apparent sympathies and respect. Add his common usage of Masonic and Pagan picture symbols and I would see that as unjustifiable, and clear evidence that Russell really and truly was a Mason. There is other evidence to come, as well.<<

Masonic words are underlined. Major Masonic ideas are boxed in and captioned to help the reader.  


Who May Know God's Secrets                                                     15

our Grand Master and Lord and Redeemer, the others being those of whom He says, "All ye are brethren," and of whom the Apostle declares they are members in particular of the Body of Christ, the Church of the First-borns, whose names arc written in Heaven. (Heb. 12:23.) Under another figure our Lord is spoken of as a Bride- groom, and these 144,000, now espoused to Him, covenanted to Hint, are ultimately to be united to Him as His Bride, to become the Lamb's Wife and associates in His Throne and work of the future.—Rev. 21 :9.

With the completion of this elect class, all shaped and polished as the Lord's Jewels by present trials, difficulties, etc., etc., the time will have come for the inauguration of the work of this Royal Priesthood. The Kingdom class will then all be in glory —Jesus their Head glorified nine- teen centuries ago, the Church His Body glorified with Him by a share in His kind of resurrection, at His Second Coming. Then the Law shall go forth and the Word of the Lord; then Satan shall be bound; then every evil thing shall be plucked up by the root! What a turmoil this will mean at the beginning may be better imagined than described. But so far as the uprooting and up- turning is concerned, the Lord has a peculiar way of accomplishing this; namely, by simply allowing present institutions to "run amuck," to overthrow themselves, to develop anarchy which will sweep the world as with a besom of destruction and produce a Time of Trouble such as never was since there was a nation! It will be at the conclusion of this period of awful anarchy toward which the world is now heading rapidly and from which it can- not be held back by human wisdom and prudence because selfishness has blinded the minds of the masses. The Scriptures tell us that when that plowshare of trouble shall have passed through the world and finally the new Order of things shall have developed, the poor world will begin to have saner ideas in respect to life, justice and righteousness; and we read that many nations shall

16                      Pastor Russell's Sermons

then say, "Come let us go up to the Kingdom of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we shall walk in His path." (Micah 4:2); and again, "The desire of all nations shall come." All nations will by that time be so thoroughly weary with the awful trouble that they will be glad to welcome the Reign of Righteousness then due to be inaugurated.  

The reforms of that time will be thorough-going. Justice will be laid to the line and righteousness to the plummet, and the lies will all have been swept away, Satan shall be bound for a thousand years, his deceptions shall cease, and instead the light of the knowledge of the glory of God shall fill the whole earth. (Isa. 28:17; Hab. 2:14.) When thus the judgments of the Lord shall be abroad in the earth (rewards for well doing and stripes or punishment for evil doing) the inhabitants of the world shall learn righteousness. Then the willful, persistent evil-doer shall be cut off in the Second Death.  

Ultimately the blessing of the Lord through this Melchizedek Priesthood shall accomplish all that its Divine Founder outlined in the first statement of these good news to Abraham, namely, "In thy Seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed." As a result we read that every knee shall bow and every tongue confess to the glory of God, and that Christ shall reign until He shall have put down every opposition and evil, the last enemy that shall be destroyed being death. (Isa. 45:23; 1 Cos. 15:25, 26.) The whole world shall thus be uplifted from the power of sin and death, and be brought back to allegiance to the Heavenly Father. And then, saith the Scriptures, The Christ, the Melchizedek Priesthood, shall deliver up the Kingdom to God even the Father, that He may be all in all. (1 Cor. 15:28.) However, the Scriptures clearly indicate elsewhere that the great honor of God upon Christ, His beloved Son, and upon the Church, the Bride of Christ, will be an everlasting honor; but the details of the Father's purposes for the Church are still

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A Freemason in Kansas is quoted in the American Tyler (5 June 1890) p.1-2,

"Freemasonry is not only a brotherhood but a church ... A Masonic temple is a religious temple. The very word "temple" implies worship."

"...the rites and symbols of Masonry which though "pagan" in origin, are all applied to and all flavor of Christianity. A Mason has to declare his belief in a personal God, Jehovah, and in the Encampment degrees also in Christ."


The reputation of the religious character of the Masonic Orders varies from those who see it as Christian to those who see it as demonic.

This chapter won't concern itself with showing its paganism, but rather hopes to display to the reader that even the Masons can sound quite Christian. More than that, this talk could be mistaken for a Jehovah's Witness's sermon if one didn't know better.

DEGREE OF MASTER MASON Symbolism of the Degree

WE have seen the type of man complete in moral worth and intellectual culture—not left to acquire knowledge, but first prepared to use that knowledge well, when it shall have been obtained. What more is left? Communion with our Maker. The mere knowledge of the Deity, as given us heretofore, is that of an august Creator, whom we are to reverence, and in whom alone we are to place our trust. But we have not yet

Such a speech could have easily have been written by C.T. Russell--but it wasn't. It was written by the Master Mason General Ahiman Rezon. The Author felt that this Masonic speech gives an awareness how C.T. Russell may well have felt comfortable to have been a Knights Templar.

NOTES  from footnote of the just above photocopy at the end.

1 Sickels, Daniel, 33°.The General Ahiman Rezon and Freemason's Guide, N.Y.:Masonic Pub. Co., 1871, pp.187-189.


Back to TOC

The author hasn't had access to the full range of documents that would help confirm Russell's membership in a Masonic order. Rather than presenting conclusive evidence about a membership, the author will present a series of cases that will show the reader the importance of not just giving attention to what a man writes, but also what he does. Many people incorrectly think that what the WT publishes or the Society says is absolute truth. In order to break the illusion of WT credibility, and to open the reader's mind to the possibility of Russell's duplicity with occultic Freemasonry this chapter has been written. Indeed, the cases presented in this chapter are very revealing and will be very shocking to some people.  

Prior to C.T. Russell's second trip in 1911 to the Great Pyramid, Russell had found himself in the Court of Common Pleas. He faced divorce proceedings launched by his soon-to- be ex-wife. As so often happens, both parties threw everything but the kitchen sink at each other. In court in 1906, Maria Russell brought the accusation of child molestation against Charles T. Russell. Russell admitted he'd locked himself in with Miss Ball "to minister to the sick" and had kissed Miss Ball, but only to give "spiritual tonic."

To set his congregation at ease, Charles T. Russell took "A Vow Unto the Lord" which actually consisted of 5 vows, two of which concerned his sexual conduct. He vowed he would conduct himself privately in the same manner with the opposite sex as publicly and not to lock himself in any room with the opposite sex alone. These vows were printed in the WT 6/15/1908.  

As there was a question as to whether he'd been involved in the occult, he also publicly addressed that issue in his vows. He vowed, "I vow to Thee that I will be on the alert to resist everything akin to Spiritism and Occultism, and that, remembering that there are but the two masters, I shall resist these snares in all reasonable ways, as being of the Adversary."


Chapter 7 clearly shows beyond a doubt that C.T. Russell soon broke that vow. The Winged-Sun-Disk is not only akin to the occult, it is part of the occult. It was originally used in Egyptian magic. In modern times, it is still used for magic, whether by non-Masonic practitioners of Egyptian magic or Masonic ones.

The first three degrees are called the Blue Lodge. Why? Because the heavens (astrology) is so important to them. Astrology is important to Masonry as it is to many groups steeped in the occult. The Zodiac Signs were formed in pagan Babylon and have all kinds of occultic significance. Yet, Russell after his vow, had no problem displaying Zodiac signs on his Photo-drama of Creation.(p.2) Is this steering clear of anything "akin to Spiritism and Occultism"?  

>> We could also mention pyramids, Masonic symbols, religious symbols and icons, i.e. idols and idolatry, such as the cross, etc. Russell blew this one big time, but notice that his flock did not notice or did not care. The fruit don't fall far from the tree!<<

Interestingly, while breaking his own vow, Russell was busy pointing the finger at Christendom. He interpreted Jer. 51:7 in a sermon, "Babylon was a gold cup in the Lord's hand; she made the whole earth drunk. The nations drank her wine; therefore they have now gone mad." Russell was claiming the "gold cup" was the Bible, and that heathen philosophies were joined with Christendom into "a poisonous draught" which was mixed and poured into the "golden cup" of truth, which had made all the nations drunk.

What shall Russell's additions to the "gold cup" of the Bible be called?

Other inconsistencies of Russell are notable. When Russell established congregations, he copied Christadelphian congregational methods—such as their views on membership & baptism, of elected unpaid serving brethren, on women having congregational voting rights but no part in public speech or prayer, of naming their congregations "ecclesias", of posting signs saying "Seats free, no collections taken", etc. Christadelphians had specially chosen the unused term "ecclesia" to name their congregations in order to set themselves apart from all other Christians. Russell liked the term, and took away their exclusive use of it for his own congregations. Russell was very critical of the Christadelphian Ecclesias. Perhaps they were too close for comfort.

Naturally, it can be expected some will regard the written statements of the Watchtower Society and its leaders as final and the gospel truth. If these statements were consistent and reliable, the author could use that testimony to show how Russell and Rutherford condemned Freemasonry, and skip writing this book.

But these men of the Watchtower Society have vacillated and contradicted themselves in word and deed, not to mention contradicting each other.

When men do not lead consistent lives, it is critical for any objective investigation to look at both what they were saying and what they were doing.

The reader has seen how Russell failed to honor his vow. How about this great leader's followers?

Let's examine first the instructions he issued to his Bible Students.

Calling his people "New Creation", Russell advises them to withdraw from organizations such as the Freemasons. "It is very reasonable to assume that what are called the fraternal insurance societies will fail before the regular companies, because the former are without capital, and depend upon assessments; and because these assessments will become the more onerous as the membership of the societies not only ceases to increase, but, under pressing conditions will dwindle...

"This brings before us the whole question of orders, societies, etc., and what privileges the New Creation has in connection with such organizations. Is it right for them to be members of these societies? We answer that while Church associations are purely religious, and labor and beneficial organizations in general are purely secular, there are still other orders which combine the religious and the secular features. As we understand the matter, for instance, the Free Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, etc., perform certain rites and ceremonies of a religious kind. Let it be understood that we are not waging any warfare upon those who hold membership in these various orders, even as we are not waging warfare against the various sectarian religious systems. We place upon one level all of those which have any religious ceremonies, teachings, etc., and consider them all as parts of Babylon, some quarters or wards of which are cleaner, and others less clean, but all, nevertheless, full of confusion, error—contrary to the divine intention, as displayed in the organization of the primitive Church...We admonish the New Creation to have nothing whatever to do with any of these semi-religious societies, clubs, orders, churches; but to "Come out from amongst them, and be ye separate, and touch not the unclean thing." (2 Cor. 6:17) Their things, their worship, their teachings, their doctrines, are unclean to us, though they may not be unclean to themselves. The eyes of our understanding have been opened, and now to us all things appear in a new light, so that things which we once loved we hate, and things which we once hated now we love.

"But as concerns other orders ... which contain nothing of a religious character... which attach signs and passwords merely as a diversion...we have nothing to say against these." (The New Creation, pp 580-581)   >> He should have something to say about them! <<

Russell also suggests in his book The Battle of Armageddon, pp.44-45, that to come out of Babylon means leaving groups like the Freemasons.

"To come out of Babylon cannot mean a physical emigration from the midst of the nations of Christendom... The idea of the command is a separation from all the binding yokes of Christendom —to have no part nor lot in her civil, social, or religious organizations ... This implies the withdrawal from the various religious organizations, whose doctrines misrepresent ... the Word of God."

>> Russell was really ahead of his time in some respects which Fritz does not fully appreciate, I think. Russell advocates separation from nominal mainstream denominational Christianity which he calls Christendom. He calls her a whore in other places. He was right on, dead on! I must point out that it is such intelligent messages that helped him and later, JWs, attract people, particularly like me. I hated religion as I saw it around me. So Russell has many good things about him, as I will point out along the way. Like all religions, there is some good along with some or much that is bad. We should condemn the bad, but also praise or admit the good, or we are not fair impartial judges and God will judge us for being biased, unfair, and unjust.

Note below that Russell also warns about separations from institutions that are connected with secret societies or even financial bondages, and he Predicts the fall of such financial institutions. The stock market id crash in 1929. Russell was dead in 1916. I do  not know when this was written but Russell, again, was way ahead of this time. Of course, if he was ultimately serving Zionists of great wealth and power, they could have let him in on this so that he would seem more like a prophet. But regardless, his vision was at times, very good. But it was also conflicted and contradictory far too often.<<

"Principle in some cases, and policy in others, would separate us from the various social arrangements among men. On principle, it would set free any who are entangled with the oaths and obligations of the various secret will be the part of wisdom to withdraw from the various social and financial bondages which must inevitably succumb to the ravages of world-wide anarchy. In that time (and, bear in mind, it will probably be within the next few years) financial institutions, including insurance companies and beneficial societies, will go down; and "treasures" in them will prove utterly worthless... the time will come when men "shall cast their silver into the streets, and their gold shall be as though it were unclean ... But those who have made the Most High their refuge need not fear the approach of such times. He shall cover them with his feathers, and under his wings shall they trust; yea, he will show them his salvation."


Even before Russell advised his people to avoid entanglements with secret societies, he was warning them about Spiritualism. An article in the Mar. 1881 WT (which was reprinted in the Sept. 1881 WT) warned about Spiritualism.

One of Russell's followers describes in a letter her struggles as a Bible Student.

"I have been having a rather strange and perhaps unwise experience lately. My husband's brother is a Spiritualist, takes the Progressive (?) Thinker and is thoroughly imbued with its teachings, and, when I visit there, he reads articles from its teachings, and asks my opinion concerning them; especially those from persons claiming to have received messages from 'departed friends' through the aid of the mediums. Now I never have thought it 'all humbug' as many do, though there is much fraud connected with it—for it seems to me that the Bible plainly teaches that spirits have had, and will have, the power to communicate with men. I have told him that I believed those communications came from fallen angels who personated the dead for the purpose of deceiving men into believing Satan's old lie, "Thou shalt not surely die ."... His a firm believer in SCRIPTURE STUDIES... Some time ago he bought a Psychograph, an instrument used by mediums for communicating with spirits, but he could not use it.

"A few days ago it was placed in my hands, and, as I found I was a medium, I resolved to "try the spirits." About the first thing it said to me was that there is a valuable gold mine on our place: that did not surprise me, as we had been told that a "vein" had been traced across the place. It described the exact location to dig for it; said it is only 7 1/2 feet below the surface. So that will not be difficult to prove. Then it gave me some Scripture messages, Col. 1:4,5 and 2:4. I asked what was meant by "enticing words" and was answered, Bellamy, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Ingorsollism, etc. I asked who was talking, and was told Epaphras. That did not seem to please my brother-in-law very much, and he said he would like hear from some one we had known in the flesh, so I asked if such an one were present, and was told, 'Yes, Eastman" (a stranger to me, but my brother-in-law and his wife, who alone were present, were both acquainted with him). When asked what he wished to say he cited us to Titus 3:5, said the doctrine of THE STUDIES (Russell's books) is true, and that his wealth had hindered him from gaining the prize of the high calling. 'I,' said Eastman,' was not thought a very good Christian, though a member of the church.'

"The next day I tried the wheel, or Psychograph, again, and was told that a dear good friend of mine who had lived in speaking distance of me for several years was talking to me. She asked me to write to her husband and tell him that she said, a certain boy (giving name) was having a bad influence over their boy. She told me that my husband (who is in Florida) was hurt and very lame, and I got a letter from him day before yesterday confirming it. She said she regretted that she had not given SCRIPTURE STUDIES the attention that I had wished her to, that she had life on the angelic plane; she also told me of the "mine." I asked did she know the one claiming to be Eastman, and she said yes, that it was a deceiving spirit personating him, and that I would best not make use of the means through which I could receive such communications. One claiming to be Cephas cited me to the first chapter of Daniel. Another, claiming to be my father, said in substance the same. All said the same about the gold "mine," and all professed to believe in Christ and that SCRIPTURE STUDIES are correct exponents of God's

Word, and told me that I was failing to make the best use of one of my "gifts"--teaching; that I should teach publicly as well as individuals, but was cautioned with I Cor. 3:7 and Eph. 4:2.

"During the little time I experimented with the instrument I was told many things (a few of which were not true) that would take too much of your time to tell you; and several of the 'spirits' claimed that they would heal the sick through me, if I would only trust them. A great deal of Scripture was given, and all very appropriate to those for whom it was given; but the Devil quoted Scripture to Christ; and I still think the same as I did before "trying the spirits"--only I was not sure that fallen angels would admit, even for the purpose of deceiving, that Christ had "come in the flesh"; but it seems now they will. Probably 1 John 4:1-3 refers to doctrines of men wholly. Of course, it would be possible for those who shall have "part in the first resurrection" (the elect) to speak through such a device, but is it probable that they will? I will be glad to hear from you on this subject."1

An important Watchtower official, who publicly confessed demon's possessed him, was Clayton J. Woodworth. C.J. Woodworm was the editor of The Golden Age, one of the Watchtower Society's periodicals now renamed Awake! He was its editor from its first issue in 1919 to the last issue under its next name Consolation in July, 1946. His confession came during one his speeches at the summer Truth convention at Ashville, N.C. He claimed he had been having a terrific battle with demon possession. Woodworth would write the Revelation portion of The Finished Mystery in 1916-1917 which was fraudulently passed off as the "Posthumous" work of Pastor Russell. In that work, he apparently alludes to his fight with demon possession.2


1 Johnson, Paul S.L. Spiritism—Ancient and Modern. Philadelphia, PA: pub. by Paul S.L. Johnson, 1935, pp 128- 130.

2 I.B.S.A., The Finished Mystery, (Vol. VII of Studies in the Scriptures). Pp l26-127

Another Watchtower official, who battled demons, was a translator of the Studies In the Scriptures who lived in Florida. Indeed, his problem began while he was translating. The translator, when he began to be aware of the presence of demons, decided to preach to them. He told them that they had a hope of salvation in the scriptures I Cor. 6:3. But now that they had made him a medium, were not inclined to listen to this, nor did they care to leave him. Finally, after earnest prayer, they departed.3

Modern Witnesses have their run ins with demons too, according to what they have related to the author. Let the reader focus on this problem which at times is almost a comic tragedy. One Watchtower circuit overseer told the author that demons caused marital problems until he and his wife threw out all of their old birthday and Christmas cards, which took the demons with them.

What the author experienced being around JWs he would normally hesistate to portray as typical JW behavior, on the chance he experienced a fluke. However, Dr. Jerry Berman's book The Mental Health of Jehovah's Witness shows study after study confirming the things the author saw first hand. Psychological studies have indicated a widespread pattern of these following behaviors.4

*JWs claim to be the happiest people in the world, but actually suffer high rates of depression and mental illness-rates much higher than the general population.

*The Watchtower Society and its hierarchy have little understanding of Mental Health. Some of the advice the Author observed Witness elders giving could have come out of the Middle Ages. Indeed the Awake! Sept. 8,1976 has an article which extols the following example to its readers. "Doctors of Sao Paulo Hospital of Psychiatry called in a former exorcist, who is now a Witness, to exorcise spirits, and patients left the hospital apparently cured."


3 Spiritism-Ancient and Modern, p. 137

4 Bergman, Dr. Jerry R. The Mental Health of Jehovah's Witnesses. Clayton, CA. printed by Witness,Inc.,1987,pp.52- 56

*JWs are demon oriented. Anything evil that they do tends to be rationalized "The devil made me do it." They see Satan as having power to control people at will like pawns. In practice, God seems to have very little practical power compared to the power they attribute to Satan. This may seem to some at first glance like Christianity- it isn't. If I as a Christian walk into- say a pagan temple, I know the idols are nothing and that my God is stronger than them and able to protect me. I would not run and hide like the Witnesses. They live their lives in fear of demons.

Bergman, Jerry. The Mental Health of Jehovah's Witnesses, p.53 gives us a Jehovah's Witness' case history that illustrates the point," Noble (1982) notes:

We were always so demon oriented that I developed a tremendous fear of them. And when I became sick, depressed, and suicidal, I would desperately search the house for an object that could be demonized. I once discarded a picture of a little girl that I had hanging in my guest room because she had "intense" looking eyes. I had my master bathroom done in an Indian decor at the time, and on the wall was a plaque of a dancing Indian. I decided he must be an Indian god of some sort, so out he went. One night I awoke, terrified, and got it into my head that all of the herbs from the health food store were drugs of some sort. I threw them all away, along with aspirin, Turns, cough syrup, and you name it. My whole medicene cabinet got tossed in the trash."

*Witnesses blame their own problems on outsiders. Satan is one of their favorite scapegoats. They rationalize reality away. Since everyone outside of their organization belongs to Satan, Satan wants to keep them happy, and keep them where they are. The flip side is that Satan is trying to make everyone on the inside of the Watchtower Society miserable. This view contradicts the official-published view that they are the happiest people in the world, but it is a neccessary rationalization for Witnesses who can't overlook the obvious unhappiness and demonic influences pervading the organization.

*Those people who can practice the defense mechanisms of denial, rationalization, or projection are more likely to remain JWs.


*Problems not understood are blamed on demons.

*Lack of organizational zeal or loyalty is blamed on demons.

*Mental illness and thoughts of suicide are blamed on demons.

*Any book like this which discusses demons—whether pro or con is demonized. But in contradiction to this, the Society's publications which show demonic signs, astrology signs, etc. are good.

During his time with the JWs, the author's experience exposed him to a surprising amount of JW hypocricy. Nor can one simply read Russell's condemnation of the occult and Freemasonry and assume the Society is squeeky clean of such.5

Other evidence corroborates the author's personal experiences, that in spite of many sincere people that seem to have integrity, there is corruption throughout the organization. Perhaps Organizational loyalty blinds the eyes of those with integrity.

The inconsistencies and problems of integrity go way back. For instance, The The Christian Globe, had an article placed in it by the International Bible Students Association, printed May 5, 1910 which described the Pastor as "Above all, the Pastor may be described as strictly orthodox, evidenced by his close adherence to the Bible as the inspired Word of God."


5 If Russell wasn't consistent with his own writings, let us bear in mind other men have been guilty of that too. Remember, Joseph Smith, Jr. also condemned Freemasonry and Secret Societies in his writings. His first sealed wife was the widow of Morgan, the famous man who was murdered after he exposed Masonic secrets. Yet, in spite of what he wrote, Joseph Smith joined, and the majority of his followers joined too until they were kicked out by the Grand Lodge for changing the rituals.

And did Rutherford have fun with the Bible. In 1930, Nebuchadnezzar was said to represent Satan. In 1936, he was said to represent God. In 1923, character development was declared the work of God, in 1927 it was declared the delusion of the devil.

Is it surprising with all this confusion, that after printing hundreds of pages of Watchtower literature against Spiritism, the occult was encouraged at their headquarters?

The worst cases of this are the statements of Rutherford and Fred Franz, the current President, about receiving messages channelled to them by angels. As the messages were false and unscriptural (such as the advice of the book Children which forbade JWs from having children; and later changed when Armageddon failed to arrive), what does that suggest?

Another case eventually got whistle-blower Roy Goodrich disfellowshipped and slandered. Roy attempted to stop the use of a gadget that was a glorified ouija board that the Jehovah's Witnesses used to heal themselves. Rutherford got tired of his accusations of demonism and in rouse to shut him up, had him write his views for a Golden Age article. (3/5/1930)

Thereupon Rutherford had an article presenting a rebuttal to Roy's article published. Then he declared the topic closed, and not to be discussed, while the Society continued its "Ouija Board" healing.

How intimate was this "Oija Board" quackery? The Watchtower Society as a body had promoted this from the Society's President, its travelling representatives, its pioneers, and its periodical, down to the Jehovah's Witness on the street. At headquarters, Dr. Mae J. Work practiced this quackery during the 1920. During the 1940's, Matthew Arnold Howlett carried out the therapy at headquarters. Hudgings at the "Abrams Institute" across from Bethel Headquarters at 24 Clark St., Brooklyn also handled the constant stream of JWs who wanted treated by the gadget. Some called the gadget a "Radioclast", others "Oscilloclast". Roy Goodrich called it a Ouija Board.

Besides the flocks using this treatment at headquarters, JWs flooded out of state places like Jonesboro, Ark, and Dr.

Rollin Jones in Florida, for it too. Early in the '50s, the JWs stopped.

Dr. Rollin Jones, the personal physician to Judge Rutherford, also advertised the book The Grape Cure in the Dec. 26, 1928 Golden Age, pg. 206. To quote Roy Goodrich, "To the Bible student who knows the Bible on demonism, the book has the earmarks of demonism all over it and all through it." Fred Franz, current President, promoted the book back then too.

Remember, God through "his"(?) angels had informed Rutherford that vaccinations were evil. Even today, years after the ban on vaccinations was lifted, the author knows Witnesses who refuse them for themselves and their children. The Society by destroying the authority of science and the medical profession in the eyes of the JWs, have created an atmosphere conducise to quack and demonic cures. There were other quack cures besides the ones above. One was nicknamed the "spook cure."

Now the Watchtower has gone to some wild extremes to prove their points. They have often dishonestly misquoted scholars (what's to lose? how many JWs would look up, for instance, a quote from the Catholic Encyclopaedia—an encyclopaedia they aren't to have anyway--on a quote that says the Trinity is false, when they want to believe it's false anyway.) And the Watchtower Society has grasp at some real straws to prove their points. That sets the stage for the reader for this next case in point, their campaign to medically prove blood transfusions are dangerous.

(The author will relate this all back to the Freemasons in due time.)

Somewhere at sometime up in the Towers of Brooklyn, NY Jehovah's Witnesses' leaders decided that a person's personality is in his blood and organs.


6 Goodrich, Roy. Demonism and the Watchtower. Fort Lauderdale, FL: The Bible Way Publ., 1969, p. 1-35.

7 lbid.,p. 9

For years, the Jehovah's Witnesses were fed horror stories of personality transfers by blood and organ transfers. The Watchtower had previously warned that vaccinations produced hybrids, because the vaccines were made of another species' blood. The ideas are similar.

In the 5/31/1939 issue of Consolation (p.3). the Society blames the use of vaccinations on greed. "The Medical Association is not content with one vaccination. There would be slight profit in that. Vaccinations of various kinds are recommended, and, where possible, insisted upon, in order to "guard" the individual against known and unknown diseases." The article goes on to say on p. 5 that "the practice of vaccination is nothing more nor less than deliberate blood- poisoning."

The Golden Age 2/4/31, p.295, states that vaccinations are an "unnatural pollution of human blood." "Of all the inventions that have been foisted upon mankind for their defilement the most subtly devilish is that of vaccination."

Page 294 states, "Vaccination has never saved a human life. It does not prevent smallpox." (May the reader bear in mind this is passed off as God's word transmitted via angels.)

Page 293 goes on, "Quite likely there is some connection between the violation of human blood and the spread of demonism. Acts 15:28,29 ... plainly suggests that much of the looseness of our day along sexual lines may be traceable to easy and continued violation of the divine commands to keep human and animal blood apart from each other."

Page 291 then calls the inoculation of human blood with animal blood the creation of 'hybrids.'

PERSONALITY TRANSFERS BY BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS & ORGAN TISSUE TRANSPLANTS. Here is a sample of the horror stories the JWs were fed.

"For 40 years Robert Khoury was known as an honest man. Then he was given a blood transfusion after a fall. " I learned the donor was a thief," Khoury told police. "When I recovered I found a terrible desire to steal." And steal he did.

He confessed to stealing £10,000 in six robberies in three months. Khoury threatened to sue the doctor if he receives a severe sentence for his thievery." (Awake! 7/8/69 p.30)

"At Stanford University Medical Center last year, a 45 -year-old man received a new heart from a 20-year-old donor and soon announced to all his friends that he was celebrating his twentieth birthday."(WT 3/1/71 p.135)

"And a third man expressed great fear of feminization upon receiving a woman's heart." (Ibid.)

On a WT page called "Insight on the News", a story called "Transplant problems" says "A peculiar factor sometimes noted is a so-called personality transplant. That is, the recipient in some cases has seemed to adopt certain personality factors of the person from whom the organ came."(WT 9/1/75 p.519)

Another WT states ,"... medical research has indicated in a realistic way how blood transfusions may damage the individual's personality... The blood in any person is in reality the person himself... Transfusing blood, then, may amount to transfusing tainted personality traits. How great the danger may become if the blood is taken from... criminals and other derelicts." (WT 5/15/62 p. 302)

The Sept. 15, 1961 WT issue was the first WT to really advance the idea that the personality is in the blood, although that was hinted at clear back in the early 1930s.

Under the subtitle "Personality Influenced" the WT says blood from cadavers is transfused in some places. Further, it states blood transfusions may demoralize a person's moral nature, and taint a person's hereditary offspring for generations. They quote some Doctor Alonzo Jay Shadman as saying, "The blood in any person is in reality the person himself." Another doctor in Brazil is quoted, "Moral insanity, sexual perversions, repression, inferiority complexes, petty crimes—these often follow in the wake of blood transfusions."( WT 9/15/61, pp.563-564) The Watchtower Society calls blood transfusions "a vague medical mystery" (1963 Yearbook, p.69) And their Awake! 7/22/63 p. 14 claims "doctors admit" that blood transfusions are a "fad, more mystical than scientific." If the Watchtower is correct then the world's best doctors are practicing mysticism. And the Society's view is scientific.


The modern Masons received received their mystical religious aspects into their trade guilds in the 17th century from the Rosicrucians.8 Without sidetracking to document that, let it just be stated that the 18th Masonic degree, known as the Rose-Croix perpetuates many of the Rosicrucian symbols, and that the modern Rosicrucians were created by a Mason. Quoting from the book The Rosicrucian Cosmo- Conception or Mystic Christianity it reads, "The blood is one of the highest products of the vital body as it is the carrier of nourishment to every part of the body, and the direct vehicle of the Ego."(p.91)

This is summed up "Blood... carries the feelings and emotions."(p. 606)

Further it states, "The blood is the highest expression of the vital body, for it nourishes the entire physical organism. It is also, in a sense, the vehicle of the subconscious memory, and in touch with the Memory of Nature, situated in the highest division of the Etheric Region. The blood carries the pictures of life from ancestors to decendants for generations, where there is a common blood..."(p.397)

"As the blood passes through the engraves the pictures it carries... therefore the heart is the home of altruistic love." (The idea here is that the emotion of love physically resides in the heart.)

The section "The Blood The Vehicle of the Ego" (pp. 143- 146) states "Not until the blood is made by the child does it think of itself as "I."

"Science has lately discovered that haemolysis results from the innoculation of the blood of one individual NOTES

8 Hall, Masonic, Hermetic... pp.CXXVIII-CXXXIX gives proof of this, and even refers to an Encyclopaedia Britannica article that about the genesis of Freemasonry.

into the veins of another of a different species, causing the death of the lower of the two. Thus any animal inoculated with the blood of a man dies. The blood of a dog transfused into the veins of a bird kills the bird... Science merely states the fact, the occult scientist gives the reason."

Further it states that mixing blood of different species produces a hybrid which is an "abomination."(pp.355- 356)

The reader has seen the Rosicrucian claim that only the occult scientist understands the danger of innoculations (vaccinations). Here is the Watchtower Society, with identical beliefs to the occultic Rosicrucians, claiming that the Medical profession is demonic and practicing mysticism. Who would you, as the reader, say practices mysticism?

Where has all this confusion come from?

If indeed Russell borrowed the idea of degrees of enlightment, keys to the scripture, progressive light, and hidden knowledge from the Masons, and it appears he did, then indirectly they may have caused the major process of Watchtower thought.

That statement will take some explaining.

Is Rutherford alone responsible for spoiling C.T. Russell's organization? Did he betray Russell? It is popular today by both JWs and non-JWs to tend to disassociate Russell from the movement today. This dilutes the "credit" or "blame" Russell receives for where the Jehovah's Witnesses are today. And indeed if you have some pet doctrine that Russell espoused that Rutherford changed, it is easy to feel that Rutherford is responsible for the Jehovah's Witness sect. But that is not the case.

Russell (using his borrowed Masonic concepts) set the stage for what happened. Russell's religion was based on progressive light. That the "night" was turning to dawn was proof that a new day was coming. The millenial dawn, was a light that was getting progressively brighter; and the big proof that this was a millenial dawn was that the light was getting brighter. The response was good. People wanted to get progressive enlightenment.

However, in contrast to the Freemasons, the JWs after baptism do not have progressive secret levels to ascend. In order to provide progressive light to the initiates, new light must be delivered periodically. Thus the Mason's indirect contribution, the concept of progressive light, was to lock the Watchtower Society into a process where they had to continue giving new light. For if new light stopped, then the proof of the new dawn and its coming millennium vanish.


Does the reader not realize that Rutherford had this figured out? And if Rutherford had not given new light, do you think the Society would have remained stagnant like the Bible Students have who have remained loyal to Russell all these years? No, as soon as Russell died, Woodworth, Freitag and others immediately took up the slack to produce new light. The first new light was on the mystery books of Ezekiel and Revelations. Rutherford's big challenge was to keep the flow of new light to a minimum so that his new light would be the principle new light. But if he had not been there, there were numerous others that had realized the process—the process of new light.

And just like the Masons going from degree to degree, as long as the JW feels he is getting progressive light he feels progress. (This is also the same idea behind the living prophets of the LDS and the RLDS churches, although their prophets in modern times haven't given much new light.)


But is the new light all that it's cracked up to be? No, to a large extent it is semantics. Just as the Masons rename symbols x and y, at different degrees or levels, so too the JWs rename every so often the components of their religion and pass it off as new light. Sometimes the renaming has swung a full circle.

The problem is that for so long the Christian focus has been on the details and not the process. It is not so important that Russell's prophecies are shown false, or Rutherford's, or Franz's. The Millerites and the Second Adventists were wrong, but for the Adventists there was someone to pick up the banner and charge on. That person was C.T. Russell. And there will always be someone to grab the fallen banner of a false prophecy and charge on, until the process is challenged, rather than the details.  

>> Actually, Seventh Day Adventists founder Ellen G White also picked up Miller's baton and claimed she was the prophetess to carry on after the signaled change in heaven took place and filtered down to earth, so to speak. JWs and Adventists are the 2 biggest fans of that 7 times = 2520 years interpretation.<<

After Russell's death the Bible Students(4,000) kept the details, and have stagnated. The rest of the International Bible Students(17,000) stayed with Rutherford and the process, and have experienced growth.

Rutherford understood the process of and principles of Russell's. Russell in many ways set the stage for what happened. By de-emphasizing Christ and by emphasizing hidden knowledge, he played a key role in the formation of today's Jehovah's Witnesses. For today in Russell's legacy, the key to understanding the Bible and salvation is the Society. The goal of the initiate is to learn knowledge and take in light. Consequently, the JW spends his time studying Watchtower material. After studying through two book studies, which often takes two years he is deemed suitable enough for the next level, baptism.

In contrast to the tragic (or comical at times) script the Society is playing, where their role is to continue to provide new light, the Christians have continued to emphasize a relationship to one's Creator. Intimacy with God is stressed. Therefore developing a character that pleases God has been given a high priority. Although WT material does have material on self-improvement, the thrust is not really on personal growth, but rather on production quotas, and since the best way to do something that can be added is hours in door to door service that is where the emphasis is put. In some ways, it parallels the old communist system. A factory produces shoes not to please its customers, not to build a satisfactory relationship with its customer, but rather to produce a quota. For many JWs the author knows, a relationship with God is not important, they are concerned with the production quotas of the Society. If the quota is so many smiles, or so many frowns, then that is what is strived for.  

>> I have found the same thing myself. JWs never really consider God, ultimately. They are taught from day one, to do as told and follow the leadership, which they say ultimately derives from God, down through the local elders. I was never able to give them that, entirely. God was always the one I was seeking to please, ultimately. It ended up taking me out of the place, thank God! Most, however, are happy to go along with people and fit in. This is the spirit of the world, which fears men and seeks to please men.<<

The claim that Russell was an angel, that he was the seventh messenger, a man on the level of Martin Luther.9

9 More precise they say he was greater, St.Paul and Pastor Russell were the greatest. (WT Nov. 1, 1917, p.1)  

>> Indeed, while I was a JW, the members of the Governing Body of JWs were held to be the equivalent of the Apostles. Can you imagine, claiming authority of the same as the Apostles but without the Holy Spirit and all that power that came with that? Its a joke. But for a while (several years, at least), even I swallowed that.<<


This may provoke smiles from historians. It's taken seriously by Russell's followers.

One expression that occasionally pops up in Russell's writings that identifies him more to the Freemasons than Luther is his use of the word philosophy.10

Luther had a lifetime aversion to philosophy.11 In contrast, the Freemasons claim "Masonry is the legitimate successor— from the earliest times the custodian and depository of the great philosophical and religious truths... embodied in symbols, emblems..." Further, "The true Mason is a practical Philosopher, who, under religious emblems, in all ages adopted by wisdom, builds upon plans traced by nature and reason the moral edifice of knowledge... Masonry and Philosophy without being one and the same thing, have the same object..."

Christian reformers have been reluctant to refer to their teachings as philosophy, because they have heeded the warning in Col. 2:8, "See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deception, according to the traditions of men, according to the elementary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ."

The International Bible Students said of Russell, " His explanatory writings on the Bible are far more extensive than the combined writings of St. Paul, St. John, Arius, Waldo, Wycliff and Martin Luther—the six Messengers to the Church who proceeded him."

Luther had an amazing literary output, he published about once every two weeks. Russell is like a drop in the bucket.

The author, having used Luther's translation as his day to day Bible for several years, fully agrees with Heinz Bluhm's assessment that Luther's Bible translation is genius. 


10 One example of this is the Photo-Drama of Creation's cover which bills the book as "SCIENCE, HISTORY, PHILOSOPHPHY SPRINGING FROM THE WORD OF GOD."

11 Marius, Richard. Luther. London: Quartet Books, Ltd., 1974, pp 39-70, esp. pages like 44.

Consider that the three great Bible translations of Western Culture are the Vulgate, Luther's ,and the Authorized Version (King James). Only Luther's is the work of a single man. At first, the author thought Luther must have borrowed from previous German translations, but a study of those shows that their quality was so poor, that Luther received little benefit from them. Heinz Bluhm in Martin Luther: Creative Translator, p. vii, states "Luther is indeed one of the supreme literary geniuses of the entire Christian tradition at the same time that he is one of the keenest and boldest Christian thinkers of all time." "The real study of Luther's German Bible has hardly begun." Bluhm set out to show text by text the "magnitude and sheer brilliance of Luther's achievement."

Luther's approach to the Scriptures was entirely different than Russell's. Russell would develop a "reasonable" scheme and mold scriptures to it. His mystical interpretations, his de- emphasis of Christ, his inability to simply let scriptures speak for themselves places Russell parallel to the Masons, and a great distance from Luther.

Francis A Schaeffer describes the approach of Martin Luther and other reformers," The men of the contrast to the Renaissance humanists, they refused to accept the autonomy of human reason, which acts as though the human mind is infinite with all knowledge within its realm. Rather they took seriously the Bible's own claim for itself—that it is the only final authority.... The church was under the teaching of the Bible—not above it and not equal to it. It was Sola Scriptura. This stood in contrast to the humanism that had infiltrated the church after the first centuries of Christianity. At its core, therefore, the Reformation was the removing of the humanistic distortions which had entered the church."12

Russell's emphasis on human reason, meant his movement took off in the opposite direction of the Reformation. And his movement created some of the same


12 Schaeffer, Francis A. How Should We Then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture. Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, Co., 1976, pp81-82.

things that the Reformation sought to destroy. The Russell movement went on the same course other similar movements have. The church became an authority whose pronouncements are truth. The Watchtower Society as it progressed away from Reformation principles ended up creating a replica of the Catholic Church. Its basis of authority has become almost a carbon copy, and its hierarchy has an exact 1 to 1 relationship with the Catholic structure- just substitute president for pope, Governing Body for College of Cardinals, etc., right on down. This is where the movement ended, Russell gave it that direction.

Luther threw reason aside, and looked beyond reason to simply trust the Scriptures for what they say. Martin Luther was a scholar whose message touched a whole continent, and tugged at the anxieties of people all over Europe. His Bible translation unified High German as a language and was popular for Germans for many years in the fashion the English world has treated the King James.  

Luther took sin very serious. Russell has a very light view of sin, similar to the Masonic view. Real Christianity is set apart from other religions on the gravity of sin. This, if anything, sets Russell's beliefs in class more in line with Theosophy or Hinduism.  

Russell's view of God places him in class apart from Judaism, Christianity and Islam. With so many beliefs different than Luther, Russell can't be likened to Luther in terms of his beliefs. In terms of accomplishments, Russell pales compared to Luther. This is not to say that Russell wasn't a great man who accomplished a lot. But Martin Luther was in a class above Russell. Part of Russell's lack of permanent accomplishment was that the movement he founded was based less on ideas, than on personal loyalty to him as their "faithful and wise servant."  

His theology was based on human reason, rather than a solid scriptural exegesis. In short, it was man-made. Some stayed loyal to his personality cult and his specific details. Others moved forward on Russell's principle "the light gets brighter."

Russell does have one parallel with Luther. Just as Martin Luther and Charles Wesley were disappointed in the developments of the movements they began, Russell would be very disappointed in today's Jehovah's Witnesses' movement. But C.T. Russell, the kind of benevolent dictator the world loves, set the stage for what followed. Jehovah's Witnesses are his biggest legacy to the world. The forces Luther and Russell set into motion were bigger than the men themselves. The movements took off in their own directions in spite of what these two great men did. And on that thought, the author concludes, Luther and Russell were alike in a way.  

>>First of all, this was a policy from 1931, in which Rutherford was in charge, not Russell. So this can not be blamed on Russell. But I am not here to blame on this one, but to praise to the heights of heaven. If you are a health nut and conspiracy theorist, then you know how horrible vaccines truly are. Fritz much not have got around to this one yet. While Rutherford might have been lacking for good reason (though not a given), he was far ahead of his time, in seeing the evil behind doctors, medicine, and medical industry.

>>What I absolutely love about this is how doctors are shown left above as worshipping money with dead people being the result. Priceless! Babies heads cut into and being boiled which is not so far off, if you know your "stuff." 3rd above shows drugs as like the grim reaper and more carcasses. Everywhere is carnage and evil. This is one of the most honest portrayals of medicine I have ever seen, in my opinions of things. Rather than fault Rutherford, I am going to praise him for this. Again, far ahead of his time in a good way here. But not to worry! Rutherford had plenty of bad we will uncover in time.<<

>>Yes, the JWs, under Knorr, did not have the right facts on this one. This was poorly argued here. However, there are vital issues to consider of both scriptural pinciples and important medical issues as well. Try this and see some real facts!     Blood Transfusions        Organ Transplants

JWs got some issues wrong on this one, but they got a few right, too. God deliberately placed big symbolism on blood, even as He did for 1 particular tree and its fruit in the garden of Eden. Do not ignore either one! And in my opinion, blood transfusions are a medical racket and fraud. Better and far less harmful solutions are available and for far less money, so they suppress it. Score at least half a point for JWs on this one. Remember, no religion can be 100% wrong. There have to be some good points somewhere. JWs have their good and bad points. I'll nail them both!

Chapter 11:        RUSSELL'S ZIONISM -- MASONIC?
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In 1910 and 1911, Jews flocked to hear a Christian preacher. His message at St. Louis (June 11-12,1911) was "Zionism, the hope of the world."

This fatherly figure of a preacher, the likes of which the Jews had never seen before, was C.T. Russell. And he captured many of the Jews' attention if not their hearts.

They flocked to his meetings. Four thousand Jews listened to this christian preacher at New York City's Hippodrome on Oct. 9, 1910. Later in London 4,600 went to the Royal Albert Hall to hear him, and 800 at the Shoreditch Town Hall. 1,200 Jews came at Manchester, 1,400 Jews turned out at Glasgow, Scotland, and another 5,000 at Cincinnati, OH.

What captured their hearts? Russell sums up his Hippodrome message, "We were not preaching Jesus to them. Our message was to the Jews as Jews, from Is.40:1,2, Comfort ye, comfort ye my people." (Charles Taze Russell. Early American Zionist p.69)

Russell's repeated assurances that he wasn't proselytizing the Jews achieved their goal to calm the Jews' fears. Further, Russell had a radical message for his time, Zionism. Russell was a Zionist before the word existed.

In 1880, Russell began to predict that the Jews would return to Palestine. His third book, Thy Kingdom Come (1889) spends its whole 8th chapter on "The Restoration of Israel."

His prophecy about the Jews returning to Israel are, in the author's estimation, his most accurate (the others having failed.) But this prophecy is ignored by the Watchtower Society because it clashes with their present light that the nation of Israel is not in God's plan.

Russell applauded as he saw his predictions starting to happen. Russell advertised Dr. T. Herzl's launching of Zionism. Russell published a Yiddish paper Di Shtimme. which also circulated in Europe and Russia. Later, he wrote Comfort to the Jews, telling them the Bible promised God would restore their nation.

One of the greatest impacts of Russell's life, was to promote the founding of modern Israel. The author would contend that the Jewish people because of their knee-jerk reaction of fear towards Christians have failed to realize the depth of support premillennialists have given the state of Israel.



Because Freemasonry has been connected to Judaism, the question has been raised as to whether Russell's pronounced Zionism might have Masonic connections.

This scheme appears to fail considering that Freemasonry has borrowed from and is supported by a wide spectrum of religious affiliations including a variety of individual Christians. Dispensational Premillennialists have been quick to support Zionism. Unless one could definitively pinpoint Russell collaborating with Jewish Masons, it would be far less complicated to simply believe Russell's Zionism reflected some dispensational thought. Zionism has not been a Masonic movement Or have they played a role?

A real connection is Soloman's Temple. Soloman's Temple has played a big role in Freemasonry. It is described in detail in the various Freemason editions of the Christian Holy Bible, and has received their close attention. Freemasons have numerous times written books and articles on Soloman's Temple.

Soloman's Temple has also been a large point of interest for Zionists and Premillennialists. They wait for its reconstruction.

The Masonic Edition of the Holy Bible describes a Dr. John Wesley Kelchner, who assembled in 1923 all the materials to actually build another Temple. Holman's Masonic Bible is illustrated with skilled paintings form Kelchman's architectural plans.  


In 1861, from a Parisan Jewish periodical La Verite Israelite (Vol V., p.74), gives us insight into how the Masons and Jews had some similar goals:

"The connections are more intimate than one would imagine. Judaism should maintain a lively and profound sympathy for Freemasonry in general, and no matter concerning this powerful institution should be a question of indifference to it."

"For a very long time, owing to the progress in morals and public liberty , Freemasonry has been able to abandon it role of a mysterious secret society, forced by the fear and tyranny of former governments to veil itself in prudent obscurity. Its principles and methods have been known to the public for so long that it cannot be difficult to understand its spirit and aims."

"But the spirit of Freemasonry is that of Judaism in its most fundamental beliefs; its ideas are Judaic, its language is Judaic, its very organization, almost, is Judaic. Whenever I approach the sanctuary where the Masonic order accomplishes its works, I hear the name of Soloman ringing everywhere, and echoes of Israel. Those symbolic columns are the columns of that Temple where each day Hiram's workmen received their wages; they enshrine his revered name. The whole Masonic tradition takes me back to that great epoch when the Jewish monarch, fulfilling David's promises raised up to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, a religious monument worthy of the creator of Heaven and earth... "

"That Temple which must be built, since the sanctuary in Jerusalem has perished, the secret edifice at which all Masons on earth labor with one mind, with a word of command and secret rallying points—it is the moral sanctuary, the divine asylum wherein all men who have been reconciled will re- unite one day in holy and fraternal Agapes; it is the social order which shall no longer know fratricidal wars, nor castes, nor pariahs, and where the human race will recognize and proclaim anew its original oneness. That is the work on which every initiate pledges his devotion and undertakes to lay his stone, a sublime work which has been carried on for centuries."

If indeed Freemasons felt as strongly about the need to rebuild the Temple as this 1861 Jewish article indicates, then perhaps Masonry could have given impetus to C.T. Russell's strong belief that the Jews would return to Israel and restore their religion as part of God's plan.

>> This is what I call Religious Zionism, whereby God's plan can only be filled, so they say, by restoring Israel and Jerusalem to Jews and rebuilding the temple and re-instituting the priesthood and sacrifices, thereby negating the sacrifice of Jesus. Very clever! But very wrong!<<

Numerically speaking, most professing Christians are not pre-millenialists. The prodigious amount of pre-millenial publications tends to hide that fact. So whether Masonry encouraged Russell's Zionism at all, it can still be stated that Russell's desire to see the Temple rebuilt, placed him on this issue closer to Masonry than most professing Christians would be.  >>Fritz has a later work that shows this was the case. I'll get to it.<<

The Masonic reference, Morals and Dogma, p.321, 744- 745, stresses the importance the Kabalah has been to Masonry. The Kabalah has been one of the cornerstones of Hassidism. Hassidic Jews are a mystical minority of Jews claiming hidden knowledge.

Jacob de Haas, an Hassidic Jew who visited with C.T. Russell, found similarities between Russell and the teachings of Hassidism.

What is the Kabalah? Hebrew theology was divided into three distinct parts. The first was the law. The second was the soul of the law. And the third was the soul of the soul of the law. The law was taught to all the children of Israel. The Mishna, or soul of the law, was revealed to the Rabbins and teachers. But the Kabalah, the soul of the soul of the law, was cunningly concealed, and only the highest initiates among the Jews were instructed in its secret principles. (Masonic ,... Symbolical Philosophy, p.CXIII)

The Author has looked for traces of the Kabalah in Russell's writings, and they are basically absent. Only a few things are similar.

The use of the Kabalah to interpret the soul of the law seems to have been supplanted by Russell with his own ideas and writings which serve an identical role. Russell claimed his six books were practically speaking the Bible.

There were both Jews and Freemasons who joined Russell's International Bible Students Ecclesias. But what impact that had on Russell or the movement is difficult to find. Even Russell's remarkable early Zionism has had little impact on the modern Jehovah's Witnesses. However, the Bible Student groups have tended to remain faithful to Russell's Zionism.

In conclusion, there are definitely some similarities in thought between some Jews, some Masons, and Russell. But beyond that the Author finds no connections. The best assumption is that Russell's Zionism was the result of his premillennial outlook and not the result of Masonic contacts.

Chapter 12:        RUTHERFORD & MASONRY
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Joseph Franklin Rutherford, the second president of the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society, decided in 1935 to call their newly constructed building in Honolulu, HA the "Kingdom Hall."1

This was the first time the term "Kingdom Hall" had been used. Rutherford then requested that the Jehovah's Witnesses' London Tabernacle be renamed Kingdom Hall, which it was in 1937. Why? The Society's publications give no answer, not a clue, except that Rutherford made the decision.

Mysterious, distant, reserved, and cold, Rutherford is remembered best for his greed for power. With dictatorial powers came the ability to live in luxury at the Society's expense. His life of luxury during the depression is hardly known to Jehovah's Witnesses today, but it included the use of several mansions, several 16-cylinder Packards, the best liquors money could buy, and all his desires for comfort He rarely spent time with his invalid wife, who lived in California.2

In 1932, Rutherford wrote and published his booklet "Cause of Death." The cover of "Cause of Death" was a colored picture of a beautiful, naked, anatomically correct Eve without a trace of a fig leaf. Was this cover to turn men's minds to God or to sell books?


1 WT 1955, P. 491

2 Letter from W.F. Salter (4/1/37) to Joseph Rutherford. Olin R. Moyle's 7/21/39 letter to Rutherford makes much of the same indictments as Salter's letter.

In 1920, Rutherford revealed his interest in the occult by writing the tracts "Can the Living Talk With the Dead" and "Talking with the Dead."

Rutherford believed his spiritual information came exclusively from angels, because the holy spirit had ceased in 1918.3 According to him, angels channelled information into his mind from a god living on the Star Alceyone in the Pleides.4 All the Jehovah's Witness work was directed by him and these angels. A close associate of Russell, wrote a book Seola. which was advertized and sold by the Watchtower Society during the 1920s under the name Angels and Women.5 According to the book, demons could repent and work out their salvation. Rutherford wrote in yet another book Angels, p.6, about fallen angels "there is some hope of their recovery. "6


3 Preservation (1932). pp.201-203, WT 11/1/31. p.327 and WT Apr. 1, 1934, p. 105

4 Russell began in the 1890's to teach about God living in the star system of the Pleides. See WT 5/15/1895, WT 12/1/1896, and The New Creation. 1904, p.618. The next Watchtower president Rutherford continued this, and Fred Franz, the present WTB&TS president also supported this doctrine —see Golden Age 5/16/28 p.540. C.T. Russell's beliefs about the Great Pyramid also relate to all this, because he believed the Great Pyramid proved God lived in the star system Pleiades. Thv Kingdom Come. 1891, pp.321,327,328. There is a lot of documentation to all these strange Pleiades beliefs in Appendix A, of Duane Magnani's book The Heavenly Weatherman. Clayton,CA, Witness, Inc., p. 187

5 Magnani, Duane. Taped speech to Penn. Convention, 1987. Magnani's speech gave information on Rutherford's demonic channeling.

6 Ibid. For those interested in verifying Rutherford's belief see Talking with the Dead, p. 145-146, Angels and Women, p.260-261, and Angels, p.43 . There are other references too.

Rutherford believed demons could work out their salvation.7 A primary job of the angels is to bring information from God. Since Rutherford received false prophecies from these angels, it would be scriptural that the angels that channelled messages through him were demons!

Rutherford had predicted in his book Millions Now Living Will Never Die that in 1925 Armaggeddon would occur, and Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob would come back to earth three days before the Magdeburg, Germany Convention of International Bible Students in May, 1925 the head of the Watchtower Society, Joseph Rutherford, Robert Martin, C.C. Binkley, Paul Balzareit, the heads of the German branch, met at the Hotel Magdeburger Hof. Jessey Hemery, Vice-Pres. of the I.B.S.A. was supposed to translate but failed to make it. A 20 yr. old Bible Student, William Schnell, was pressed into the service of translator. William Schnell was shocked at the conversation he had to translate. Their conversation was about their plans on how to handle the repercussions from their prophecy which they knew beforehand was false. Robert Martin said, " I propose we go completely into mass production of books and printed matter and FORCE all brethren who will let themselves be impressed into witnessing with books. Occupy them and they will forget failures and soon we can use these disappointments like a jilted lover who has been left at the door by his bride-to-be and who finds quickly another lover." 8

So Rutherford as a leader was far less sincerely motivated than Russell. For Rutherford it was a greedy scam for power.


7 Angels, p. 13 and other references. Rutherford in Angels, p.33. states there is no evidence that it was God who imprisoned the "spirits in prison" of I Ptr. 3:19,20. He states that the evidence is that Satan imprisoned these disobedient angels. But he adds, "If at Armageddom any of them do take a positive and unequivocal stand on the side of Jehovah and gladly leave it to Jehovah where to place them, they may be recovered and return to some place in his organization."

8 Schnell, William. The Converted Jehovah's Witness Expositor. Special Issue (ca. 1971) Dunedin, FL.,p.1

History records that the Masonic Templars were led by men interested in occult practices, and who hoped to acquire personal material wealth.9 Templar leaders like Johnson, Rosa have been called "self-seeking charlatans. "10 The mason Gugamos ripped off a group of German nobles in a costly scam.1 1 The men who created these Orders saw money in fees charged for admission to various degrees, promotions, and knighthood. 12

At this point, the reader may see some parallels between Rutherford and Masonic Templar Leaders. So it is no surprise the rumor mill has claimed Rutherford was a Freemason.

The author believes Rutherford was not a Mason, but his writings, and knowledge indicate he had investigated the occult. Whenever he needed a new arrow to shoot at Christendom, such as Christmas having originated from a sun-god festival for Mithra, he had no problem finding something. Church steeples were denounced as phallic worship. Note, that the Masons are the people who kept an interest in sun-worship and phallic worship. The Masons actually tie phallic and sun worship together. Both are regenerative forces. The Masons however discuss these things in a positive manner. Rutherford hooked onto mystical Christianity (such as the Rosicrucians and Masons have) and using their claims that Christianity came from the occult, used it against the Christians.

The Radioclast "Oija board" gadget that Rutherford promoted for thirty years is remarkably akin to the Rosicrucian ideas about the healing power of vibrations and the force of altruism. 13

Because of Rutherford's greed, his interest in the occult, his mysteriousness, his great fixation on the word Jehovah, and his great promotion of the word "Light", (He even wrote two books called Light), those who are suspicious of Rutherford having Masonic ties can be excused.  

>> Indeed, all JWs are fixated, even obsessed really, with God's name, Jehovah. Jesus is only ever quoted as calling Him the Father. Why is there no use of this name in the New Testament? So while I do believe the name has a place and is relevant and should be used in certain situations, I do not see the need or benefit of using it, nearly to the exclusion of al other titles such as God, Father, or some of the many names given Him in the Old Testament.<<


9 The Knights Templar & Their Myth, p. 116

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid., p. 123

12 Ibid.,p.118

13 Heindel.Max. The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception, pp.91- 455. p.368-369

However, when one examines a painting he doesn't just look at the corner of the picture—he looks at the whole picture- right?

This chapter's response should honestly and clearly represent all that's happened so that erroneous thinking will be safeguarded against.


Rutherford carried out a step by step campaign to discredit Russell. He discredited Russell's character-building emphasis in the 5/1/1926 WT. He replaced it with door to door proselytizing. He discredited Russell's character in the 1/1/1927 WT p.7. And one month later, repudiated the belief that Charles T. Russell was the Faithful and Wise Servant; Rutherford said that this servant was the annointed class (WT Feb. 1927, p.51-57) Even minute mistakes of Russell's were highlighted such as a minor mistake about Soloman's Temple (Vindication. Vol.III, p. 186-187).

Pro-Russell Bible Students split away and formed a number of Bible Student groups which continue to this day. The break was not a cordial parting one description says Rutherford's tactics provoked "violent criticsm" by International Bible Students.14 Most of these groups continue to use the Knight's Templar logo. For instance, the People's Paper still uses both the logos and the Watchtower on its cover. Some Bible Students continue to believe in the Pyramid as a second Bible too.15


14 Braden, Charles S. These Also Believe. NY: MacMillan Co., 1949, p. 362.

15 The Phoenixville Bible Students in Kimberton, PA still believe in the Great Pyramid as Russell did. They distribute literature on its "Scientific,Historic & Prophetic Facts".

Paul Johnson, a Chicago Bible Student (PSI) continued using the Winged-sun-disk on reprints of Russell's boolks renamed Epiphany Studies in the Scripture (1938) and his book Elijah and Elisha.

Rutherford abolished the offices of elder and deacon. In this one stroke he removed all the elders and deacons who had been democratically elected by the congregations over the past 50 years.

Beards, at times grown in emulation of Pastor Russell, were forbidden at the Watchtower Society's offices and print shops .16

In the midst of this anti-Russell campaign came Rutherford's denunciation of pyramid beliefs as demonic. 17 In the late 1920's, the Masons also came under attack as demonic.

In the Golden Age 9/3/30 was an article "How Masonry Originated?". It concludes "it plainly links Freemasonry with demonism." Again Rutherford repeats himself in the 8/5/31 Golden Age.

In spite of dabbling with the occult, Rutherford's attitude during the late 1920's and early '30s is one of intolerance toward Freemasonry. Rutherford was also negative toward Zionism.


By the second half of the 1930's, Rutherford had succeeded in eliminating the reverence for Russell by Jehovah's Witnesses. He now had total control of their allegiences and obedience. He directed their minds against new enemies. The Catholic church came first, but he also railed against any government of the world, and then along with that came the Protestants.

While Rutherford set up his dictatorship, other dictatorships were popping up around the world. In 1922


16 1974 Yearbook, (WTB&TS 1973) p. 97-98
17 WL 11/15/1928, p.340

Mussolini (Il Duce) came to power. In 1926, Portugal established a dictatorship. In 1933, after being democratically elected, Hitler (der Fuhrer) was made chancellor. And finally, in 1939 after a bloody civil war, the fascist dictator Franco took control of Spain. Huey Long in Louisiana created a fascist dictatorship, and had he not been assasinated, many believe he would have been elected President and taken the U.S. on the road Germany went on.

During the years between W.W.I and W.W. II, the Freemasons also had been active. In the U.S., they tried to organize at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 37 jurisdictions led by Grand Masters organized into a conference. This would develop into the Conference of Grand Secretaries. But by 1930, this Association would decline to only 9 juridictions.18

In Europe, the Freemasons went about supporting political moves they believed in. Continental European Freemasonry has been different than the British and American Freemasonry in that they have taken an active role in politics. They participated in France in the revolutions of 1789,1830, 1848, and 1871, and elsewhere in Europe in revolutions in 1848 and 1917.

In 1923, the Grand Lodge of France, resolved (pg. 97 of the Resolution). "The League of Nations which we desire will have all the more real moral force and influence as it will be able to depend on the support of Masonic Associations throughout the entire world." Actually, Masonic unity throughout the world was not that unanimous. .

The Convent of the Grand Orient, in 1923, p.23, declared, "It is the duty of universal Freemasonry to give its absolute support to the League of Nations." Little did they know that the soon to come fascist dictators would hate the League of Nations.

The Convent of the Grand Lodge of France. 1922, pp.235-236 spelled out what supporting the League meant. "The principal tasks of the League of Nations consists in organizing... the extension of a general pacifist education."


18 Roberts, Allen E. Freemasonry in American History.p.330- 331

Left wing parties were supported by the continental Freemasons during the 1920s and 1930s. One of the goals was one world government. The Continental Masons helped some of the Pacifist group, but probably did not aid the IBSA, for although Bible Students/Jehovah's Witnesses preached pacifism they loudly condemned the League of Nations. Still the Grand Orient Masonry may have seen an ally in the Bible Students in their common goal to abolish nationalism. 19

The fascists didn't oppose one world government, except that they wanted to be the ones in power, not the leftists.

One Mason speaker at the 1922 Convent of the Grand Orient stated "Masonry should be felt everywhere, but nowhere should its face be unveiled."

However, Masonry was to be unveiled, because the Fascists had no intention of allowing other secret organizations to exist. Beginning with Mussolini, the Fascist governments set out to crush Freemasonry.

There were also many Jewish links to the Freemasons. The author knows of at least 9 books that concern themselves with Judaism and Freemasonry. (It should be noted though that many groups can be associated with and have influenced Masonry including Gnosticism, Christianity, Occultism, and its daughter Theosophy, Islam, Satanism, and Deism. ) However, to someone like a die hard Nazi party member, that Jews would be associated with this secret organization would make it suspect.

Did Rutherford try to stay neutral in this battle between the Freemasons and the Fascists? He had plenty to lose if he antagonized the Fascists. Rutherford did not attempt to stay neutral, nor did he try to mitigate the potential suffering looming ahead for the Jehovah's Witnesses. In 1935, before the Jehovah's Witnesses had been severely persecuted by the Fascists, Rutherford came out with two articles condemning the persecution of the Freemasons.


19 Webster, Nesta H., Secret Societies and Subversive Movements. Hawthorne, CA., Christian Book Club of America, 1967, p.274.

Bear in mind, these articles were being handed out by Jehovah's witnesses in their own countries in their own language editions throughout such countries as Germany, Italy, France and Spain. The 10/9/35 Golden Age p.21 tells about the Anti-masonry campaign in Italy, "Why does the Church of Rome dislike the Freemasons? ... The Roman Catholic church objects to Freemasonry because Masonic societies do not come under their priestly control, and because Masons deny the papal claims." Rutherford blames the persecution by Mussolini on the Catholic Church because according to Rutherford Mussolini and Hitler are the epitome of Catholic sainthood and are in an alliance with the Vatican. The 11/20/35 Golden Age repeats the same story line with some more information thrown in.

Now in 1935, the Freemasons are no longer portrayed as demonic, but for the next eleven years they will be a benevolent society that was destroyed because they opposed the Catholic church. However, other groups oppressed with equal ruthlessness, are not mentioned by Rutherford.

Did the chilly period between the Society and the Masons during the late 20s and late 30s stop the two groups from associating? So far the author doesn't know. However a U.S. government Study of Oregon Religious bodies in 1940 gives the address for the Portland, OR Jehovah's Witnesses as the Masonic Temple, which is located at 1119 SW Park Ave. This must have been an interesting meeting place, for the Spirit Science Evangelistic Church (an occultic group also met there), besides numerous Masonic groups during the whole week.20

The mentally ill are eliminated by the Nazis- without a word by the society. All the members of the Old Order Amish in Germany are eliminated, but the Society has never recognized or mentioned their martyrdom. Tens of thousands


20 Directory of Churches and Religious Organizations State of Oregon Official Project NO.65-1-94-25. Prepared by The Oregon Historical Records Survey Division of Professional and Service Projects, Works Projects Administration, Portland, OR., July, 1940, p. 114.

of gypsies throughout Europe are eliminated, not a word by the Society. The list could go on and on of peoples eliminated by the Nazis and Fascists without a squeak by the Society. But the Society does care to publicize the plight of the Freemasons.21

It seems they only care, when it furthers their kingdom interests. The Catholics had learned to co-exist with the Protestants, so Fascist arrests of Protestant clergy could not be portrayed as collusion between the Vatican and the Fascists. However, the Masons were still enemies of the Vatican. Apparently Rutherford, reasoning that an enemy of his enemy is a friend, saw another chance to portray the Catholic church as evil. The Vatican at this time was afraid of the Nazis and Fascists, but preferred not to confront them. In contrast, Rutherford was at the peak of his campaign to promote disloyalty to all governments.22 He had even encouraged Jehovah's Witnesses to break the Prohibition on alcohol by smuggling in alcohol.


21 Let's interject two thoughts before the story continues. Although the JWs news coverage of Nazi persecutions was biased and unbalanced, in later years in human interest stories about W.W.II, they would acknowledge the sufferings of others which they would not admit to before. For instance, in a footnote, they admit Span, catholic Priests gave up their lives in neutrality or because they protested Franco's brutality. (Awake! 3/8/90 p.8) They report the Nazi persecution of the Austrian gypsies (10/8/55 p. 12). They report Hitler liked magic (WT 7/1/60, p.395) These things were not to their advantage to report during the 1940's. Visions of Glory sums up JW hate for the Catholics, "Nineteen-forty-four: Our hatred for the Church was an invigorating elixir. It drove us to heights of inspired lunacy." (pp. 186-187)

22 WT June 1 &15, 1929 taught that Rom.l3:l did not apply to secular governments. Secular governments were demonic. After 1935 witnesses quit standing for national anthems and saluting flags.

When the National Socialist Workers Party (Nazis) came to power, the Watchtower Society started going underground in Germany. It is understandable that some Nazis would see a conspiracy between JWs, Jews, and Freemasons. The 4/21/1937 Golden Age mocks the Catholic church for calling for world wide prayer by Catholics against the Freemasonry. The article is entitled "Determined and World-Wide Opposition to Masonic Sects."

The Consolation of 5/28/41 p. 12-13 is about the persecution of the Freemasons and Jehovah's Witnesses. The paragraphs hop back and forth from reporting Masonic to reporting JW sufferings. Quoting the article:

"Jehovah's Purpose"

Jehovah's purpose is to permit wickedness to go to its full and be cut off by His Executioner when at its height. (Psalm 92:7; Judges 3:29, with explanation in Watchtower magazine, October 15, 1940 issue) Religion, chief among which is Hitler's Catholic religion, is doomed. Does anyone conceivably think we need more of Hitler's religion? Our blood brothers at Valley Forge had not a Papist among them. George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, sixty among Washington's generals, John Hancock and a great many of his cosigners of the Declaration of Independence were Freemasons. So were the Marquis de Lafayette, Diderot, D' Alembert, Condorcet, the famous Swiss philosopher Helvetius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and Voltaire, who vitalized the French Revolution, which struck so heavily at Catholicism."

This shows us that Rutherford really did know that the Masons had gotten politically involved in the past.

The article goes on to talk about the persecution of Masons in Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Holland, Belgium, Norway, France, and Vichy France. For instance, "The persecution was carried over into Austria when the country was captured by the Nazis. The Masters of the various Vienna lodges were immediately confined in the most notorious concentration camps."

Jehovah's Witnesses would join the Freemasons in those camps. The Jehovah's Witnesses went to a wide assortment of camps and prisons during W.W.II. They interacted with the other prisoners, and had after work discussions with others. It can be speculated some of this interaction was with Freemasons, perhaps even friendships were made .23

During World War II, the Allies were led by Masons. The following is a list of some Masons leading the Allies.

Leading the British:

King George VI (who was installed as the Grand Master Mason of Scotland)

Winston Churchill (Mastor Mason of Studholme Lodge No, 1591)

Leading the Americans on the other side of the Atlantic: Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt (Master Mason Holland Lodge No. 8, N.Y. City),

Pres. Harry Truman (Past Grand Mastor of Missouri Masons) led the Americans to victory.

The Americans were aided by a host of Mason generals- General George C. Marshall,

General Joseph W. Stillwell of Burma (member of the West Point Lodge No. 877, N.Y.),

General Douglas MacArthur,

Colonel Charles Lindbergh famous for his Trans-atlantic flight,

Colonel James Doolittle (Hollenbeck Lodge No. 319, CA. since 1918) famous for his B-25 attack on Tokyo,

General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold (member Union Lodge No.7, Ks. since 1927),

General Mark Wayne Clark (Master Mason in Mystic Tie Lodge No. 398, Ind. since 1929),

Admiral Ernest J. King (Chief of Naval Operations- member of George C. Whiting Lodge No. 22 of Dist. of Columbia),

Admiral Marc A. Mitscher (member Biscayne Lodge No. 124, Florida since 1919),

General Claire Chennault helping the Chinese (member League City Lodge No. 1053 of Texas),

then Attorney General Earl Warren who instigated relocation camps for all the Japanese-Americans (Past Master Mason in CA), and others.24


23 There are accounts of Witness interaction with other inmates in the camps such as WT 10/ 1/1989 , p, 24-25  
24 Freemasonry in American History, p.340-362.

The most prominent military man for the Allies, 5-star general Eisenhower, was not a Mason, but (this is a very little publicized fact) he was the son of Jehovah's Witnesses. His father was an elder in Russell's day, and his mother Mrs. Eisenhower was baptized in 1897 into the Bible Students. The Bible Students used the Eisenhower home for their meetings for 20 years. During the war, Dwight D. Eisenhower's mother continued to be a Jehovah's Witness. In fact at the age of 82, she still considered herself a Jehovah's Witness.

The Allied nations owe a lot to these Masons and this son of Jehovah's Witnesses. It is interesting that the Axis leaders who were the worst persecutors in history of the Freemasons and JWs, would be defeated by such a group of Allied leaders.

Rutherford did not survive the war. His successor continued sympathetic articles on the Masons. The Golden Age 6/20/1945, p. 12-13 relates the massacres of Spanish masons by Franco's fascists. The WT states, "They hadn't done high crimes against the state. Their offense was simply and solely that they were members of the Masonic Fraternity. No other charge was brought against them." "Freemasons, known the world over for its works of charity and its principles of fraternity,..."

On March 13, 1946 the WT on p. 5 tells the story of how among the first victims of Mussolini were Freemasons. Why this group catches the sympathetic eye of the Society and others don't, the author can't quite explain.

Certainly the rank and file JWs do not have memberships in Masonic Lodges. However, it can't be definitively stated for sure about the upper echelon. If the Masons and the Watchtower Society were not so secretive, it would end speculation one way or the other. The upper echelon of the Watchtower Society has historically gotten away with things that would shock the rank and file. It has been documented by various ex-Witnesses about the upper echelon's use of yachts, brothels, expensive cars, mansions and other items.25

But the rank and file of the Jehovah's Witnesses live in an uninformed Orwellian world where they are no better informed about their leaders than people were in Communist East Europe.


25 Visions of Glory, pp. 145-6 . The Oregonian (9/24/1990) p.A4 provides one more of several incidents that show JWs in other countries are not regulated the same as in the U.S. The news story concerns Sanford Mweupe of Lusaka, Zambia, who had sex with his bro.'s widows after his brother died of AIDS. Mary Mweupe, his 2nd wife, who has been a Jehovah's Witness before she became his second wife, was against him contaminating himself, but has accepted Sanford back. Both wives are having sexual relations with Sanford again. The point is , if African JWs are allowed polygamy, how strict are the Society's policies against the occultic traditions of their African culture in Africa? Perhaps it is inaccurate to evaluate the Society simply in terms of the Amer. JWs. In Crisis of Conscience, p. 110-135 in the section "Double Standards" a former member of the Governing Body confesses there are double standards.

The Masons attempt to infiltrate and recruit upper echelon leaders of religious organizations. The leadership of the Watchtower Society have shown some hints of interest in the occult, such as their use of Johannes Greber a spirit medium. Johannes Greber is quoted seven times in the Watchtower Society's Bible Encyclopaedia known as the Aid to Bible Understanding as a Bible scholar. Yet, the evidence is clear that the leadership knew his open claims that his information came to him through spirit mediums.

The Masons have the reputation of having a great obligation to conceal Masonic work.26 Because of this secrecy, there may always linger in the back of some people's minds the question as to whether the ancient men leading the Watchtower today, may have taken out memberships in a lodge somewhere. In the case of Rutherford, the evidence certainly appears that Rutherford was too intolerant to have been a Freemason. This investigation hasn't checked on his life as an attorney in Missouri before he joined Russell's movement. That remains an unknown. Conclusions, if drawn, must be made on what is now known, and not speculation. Giving these men the benefit of doubt is considerate, until some unexpected information might become available.


26 Steinbrenner, G.W. (Past Master), Origin and Early History of Masonry, p.229.


Chapter 13:        A CHRISTIAN ANALYSIS
Back to TOC

This chapter will deal with two issues, first, what should the Christian response be to Freemasonry, and second, what should the Christian response be toward this book's information?


There is a feeling by some (even by some who proclaim to be Christians) that Freemasonry should not be condemned by Christians because of its benevolent activities.

Many so-called Christians participate in Freemasonry. They must answer for themselves to the Lord. Meanwhile, rather than wait to see how the Good Lord settles the issue at the Judgement, scripture can be used to indicate how the good Lord thinks.

Just what is the Christian faith? It is to love the Lord our God with all our heart, with all our soul, with all our mind, and with all our strength: this is the first and greatest commandment. The second is similar, it's for me to love my neighbor as myself. (cf. Mt. 22:37-39 & Mk. 12:30,31)

Naturally, the Christian faith believes that man is incapable of reaching the God he loves on his own. This is what separates Christianity from other religions. Christianity holds that sin is so terrible that God must remove the consequences of sin for man in order for man to get to know Him. Christianity believes that God Himself saved mankind. Accepting God's love, means accepting His means of redemption. To God be the glory for every person who finds Him, for it is not we who find Him, but He who draws us to Him, and gives us the capability to know our Creator. What an awesome privilege.

If the Christian is sincere in all this then he will give his whole soul, and strength toward loving God. Loving one's God and Father naturally implies obedience and personal knowledge of Him. "Do we devote more time and energy toward knowledge about God (theology) than we spend trying to figure out our girlfriend, or English literature, or an economic problem?" This is a question for all Christians.

The Christian who loves his God with all his heart, with all his soul, with all his mind, and with all his strength will seek God to the point that he has some definite answers, convictions and an understanding of what is expected of him. Freemasonry, in contrast to this, has believed in a universal brotherhood of all religious thought.

The Masons have pointed to their rapport with Christianity as proof that Masonry has promoted and has not inhibited Christianity. One Masonic reference states, "It is no part of the functions or purpose of the Masonic organization to provide spiritual ministrations in the way of public worship, and thus usurp the place of the Christian church."1

Anyone attending a Masonic funeral has seen how a Mason who has never professed any Christian in his life can be said to be in glory. Robert A Kessinger, of the Boise, ld. Commandery No.2 writes his view in the Knights Templar. 1988,p.l0, "Masonry is omnipotent and omnipresent. A large membership cannot make her stronger, or a lack thereof make her weaker. She is what she is. And she patiently awaits all seekers of light-even though they are apparently few in number at the present time. When good men desire her, she will rejoicingly raise them up one by one, to the celestial heavens."

Yet in spite of this and other disclaimers, many of the most respected Freemasons have declared it is a religion.

Lynn Dumenil, describes Freemasonry in Freemasonry and American Culture 1880-1930. On p. 54 she reports, "Masonry's dedication to universality, toleration, and morality was in keeping with the tendencies of liberal Protestantism, which placed less emphasis on creed and


1 Trestleboard 10 (Jan. 1896): p. 39-40 reprinted from the Repository.

denominations, and which tended to stress ethics and morality as crucial elements in religion. Liberal Protestants, eager to stem the tide of skepticism and atheism, could well tolerate Masonry and welcome its efforts at encouraging morality and religiosity."

Masonry makes equal all religious teachings, thereby devaluing the exclusive truths that Christianity presents mankind. "...despite Masonic universalist's attempts to deny that Masonry was an alternative to the churches, one group of Masons clearly contradicted them ...these men were indicating that Masonry could serve as a vehicle for religious expression outside the churches."

Further, those that chose the path of Freemasonry's Universalism were, according to Dumenil's Ph.d. research, men that did not seek Theological answers whole-souled. She writes, "It seems, however, that Masonry's religion was particularly appropriate for those men with rather vaguely defined beliefs. For men unsettled by controversies surrounding the Bible and the validity of Christianity, Masonry provided a religious experience that was comfortable, not disturbing .... Masonry could thus have special appeal to men who persisted in believing, but who were uncertain about what they believed."

Because Freemasonry promotes a lazy mental attitude toward seeking God and knowledge of Him (Christian theology), but promotes indefinite confusing answers it is in disobedience to the first commandment.

Freemasonry from a Christian analysis has promoted a "freedom of religion" that amounts to a " freedom from the true religion." Men of faith do not doubt that there is a definite source of truth concerning God. Men of faith recognize scripture as the Word of God. Men of faith realize theology is important, and that a vague intuition about who God is, is not satisfactory. Men of faith seek wisdom with all their heart. Men of faith reject the notion that all the contradictory religious views are all right. Such a confusion of beliefs is unscriptural and unchristian.

Many Masons have loved wisdom and truth. Their quest for this has led them out of the lodge and to Christ

I Thess. 5:21 states "Prove all things, hold fast that which is good." What does an ex-Mason tell us about Freemasonry? It "tends to withdraw the sympathy and active zeal of professing Christians from their respective churches."

Repeatedly, men who have been Masons and then come to their Creator through Christ, have warned that Freemasonry is dangerous, pagan, and unchristian. I Jn. 4:1 also warns the Christian to "try the spirits." And what does the Holy Spirit tell Christians in the Good Book which he co- authored? He says that He the Holy Spirit will teach us all things. (Jn. 14:25,26) and further that He will guide us into all truth (Jn.16: 13,14). You do not need to pay money and progress through oaths (obligations) and rituals to get truth. The Holy Spirit will guide you.

There may be Christians within Masonic lodges, but the lodges didn't make them Christian, God made them Christians. Further, by uniting themselves with "brothers" who are not Christian brothers they risk their fellowship with the Lord, for He has warned us not to be bonded together with unbelievers,"Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers?" (II Cor. 6:14 cf 6:15-18) Psalm 1:1 "Blessed is the man what walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful." When one becomes aware of all the oaths, the scornful anti-Christian Masons, the unconverted Masons, the rituals etc. that are part of Masonry, he becomes aware just how well suited this verse is. In other words, if a Mason is a Christian, it is in spite of his Masonic membership, and not due to it.

The horrible blood-curdling oaths, and other things done in secret are not the Christian way of doing things.2 Jesus said, "In secret have I said nothing." (Jn 18:20) For the Spirit warns us in Eph. 5:11,12 "And have no fellowship with the


2 A few Freemasons in recent times have experimented with doing away with the oaths on "penalty of death," and other blood-curdling things, and use of more moderate oath of "threatening only expulsion from the Fraternity." Knights Templar (9/1988) p.21

unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them. For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret." The lodges are not out to save sinners. Christians are commanded never to swear oaths. Jesus said, "But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem;... But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil."

James, the apostle and brother of Jesus, restates this, "But above all things, my brethren, swear not ...lest ye fall into condemnation."

Each and every Mason has broken this commandment of our Lord, from the very first, and breaks it with every degree he obtains.

The scriptures condemn fortifying one's word with oaths (Mt.5:33-37; 23:16-22; Jas. 5:12, Ex. 20:7 and others).

Footstep followers of Jesus will be open before men as Christ was and as 2 Cor. 4:2 encourages them to be. Contrary to Russell's view, God's communion of believers is not patterned after oath-bound secret societies, which promise salvation to all regardless of whether they become believers in Christ or not

The Christian congregation which follows the ethic of the New Testament cannot tolerate lodge memberships on the part of their members.


Again as the Christian has problems with Masonry, he has problems with Russell's mystical hidden progressive light in God's secret order. Jesus spoke of a different kind of light for his disciples. "You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. Nor do men light a lamp, and put it under the peck-measure, but on the lampstand; and it gives light to all who are in the house. Let your light shine before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven."

Again, Christians have problems with Rutherford's fallen

angels bringing him messages. Rutherford believed these fallen angels could work out their redemption, but Scriptures indicate that angels are fixed in their position as either good or fallen (evil).3


So-what attitude does the Christian take with this information? Is he to persecute the JWs and Freemasons?

In times past, some Christians have done that. Likewise, Jehovah's Witnesses have mocked and slandered Christianity. The JWs have tried various tactics at various stages in their history such as entering churches during services, handing out their literature outside of church doors, and their present day modus operandi of house to house calls. The Jehovah's Witnesses have certainly offended many people. Their personal light would improve if they could resolve their unhealthy bitterness toward Christianity, and if they could develop a loving attitude toward Christians.

Likewise, Christianity doesn't have a clear conscience either. Christians should discard items that hinder our witness for Christ, and hinder us in the spiritual race before us, such as Santa Claus. Christians must face honestly how we, as Peter did long ago, have in our own ways at times denied Christ. But when we hear the roosters, we must cry, and submit ourselves. That must happen before we concern ourselves with sharing material like this.


3 Why do the Christians say angels can't be redeemed? Heb.2:11-17 shows that Christ saves those who are His brothers (2:11). Even though the angels are called "sons of God" and Christ is the Son of God, they are not brothers. In order to save his brothers, Christ had to take on their nature of "flesh and blood." (vs. 14) Obviously, this is not speaking about angels. God's election of angels was done by perseverance, not redemption. The good angels are the "elect" and remain fixed in holiness, after passing the test to remain loyal to God. On the other hand, bad angels are unredeemable. Their destiny of destruction is mapped out for them. (Mt. 25:4)

Indeed, most JWs will view this book as another book in a tall stack which is out to persecute them. However, they do not meet the spiritual criteria to suffer for God. Yes, Daniel opposed Babylon and suffered, and opposing Babyon the Great will mean suffering. However, Daniel first took several steps to make sure he was really suffering for God, and not for his own sins. When Christians call attention to the false prophecies of the Watchtower organization (whether they call themselves an inspired or "uninspired" prophet is irrelevant when they have acted as a prophet of God), then the JWs must stop deceiving themselves and realize they are "under attack" for the WTB&TS sins against God.  

>> I will disagree with the boldfaced comment just above. Despite much hypocrisy and bad doctrines, JWs do have several outstanding qualities that shame much of the rest of Christianity. We must be willing to take our licks and discipline, if they are merited. For whatever their motives, JWs are among the most knowledgeable in regards to the Bible, as an entire mass/body of believers, that other denominations ought to be ashamed, when compared to JWs.

Further, most Christians were dare not touch the load the average JW carries as regards preaching door to door. Now I think there are better methods than door to door, but no one can fault their dedication and zeal, even if it is somewhat forced on them. JWs refuse any military service. For this alone, they shame most other denominations. What I know for sure, with 11 years of experience with them, is that they were not liked and were often persecuted in the past and once in a great while, in the present. Why are people so repulsed by them? I believe it is because they scare people with their commitment and dedication, as well as their knowledge of the Bible, for which others can not answer them back.

Many good JWs end up leaving their group in time. I think it possible if not likely, that a good number will eventually have a big fallout, especially if the WatchTower Governing Body (WTGB) advocates the antichrist or continues to ignore that facet. Many will also stick with the WTGB and end up destroyed, if the WTGB does not wake up soon.<<

Likewise, Christians may try sharing this information and consider that the nasty response and rejection by the Witnesses is suffering for God. Whether Christian or Jehovah's witness, unless we approach this whole issue in a Christlike manner, even if we have the truth, we are not ready to suffer for Yahweh (Jehovah).  

>> Most denominations that approach JWs are worse than JWs. This is what is so regrettable to me. I never  had a good outside source to consider until I had Raymond Franz's "Crisis of Conscience" shared with me, as well as Carl Oloff Johnsson's "The Gentile Times Reconsidered." I have since found much more, due to my own searching, with little to no credible help from mainstream denominational churches. Really, the Internet has been by far the best source for good thought and reason, the cutting edge, you might say.<<

Do we have the proper attitudes? Daniel in Dan. 1:8-16, 9:20 shows his preparation in attitude, before he was ready to suffer.

A condemning spirit is the base of self-righteousness; an ungrateful spirit toward the positive results of charitable organizations, the medical profession, and the benefits of science is the base of pride; and a bitter spirit toward others is the base of selfishness. (cf. 1 Ptr. 3:15,16;  Acts 24:16, Gal.6:4)

So can we correct our offending attitudes toward others, acknowledge our mistakes and make peace with our enemies?

If so are we sincerely interested in what motivates others to reject us? Do others see blind spots in us, or blind spots in the Watchtower Society? can it be that others understand God's goals? (cf. Prov 3:7,8) APPENDIX C will cover 3 questions Jehovah's Witnesses and a some Freemasons may ask the Christian about his position.

Finally, are we willing to give Yahweh (Jehovah) time to work in the hearts of others? Or do we want things in our own time? (cf. Prov. 21:1, Prov. 16:7)

This all goes to say that any tool (this book no exception) has potential for misuse.

Greater than history, are the values history teaches. This book has not been heavy on values, until this chapter. Now, the value of the book from a Christian standpoint is reviewed.

Christians have sought the elusive "key" to open Jehovah's Witnesses minds to see the real nature of the Watchtower Society.

Sometimes JWs, as with some Masons, have their blinders or rose-colored glasses removed when they reach the higher levels and are disappointed. They find that as truth loving individuals they must leave. The lower levels however are not aware of so much. Just as in the lower degrees of Masonry many are uninformed, so also many JWs are not aware of such things as how the Society functions as a big profit-making bookseller, for which they provide themselves as unpaid salespeople.


Many uninformed people are suckered into accepting the bogus Watchtower pronouncement that God came in 1918 and of all the churches and people in the world only the Jehovah's Witnesses-then called International Bible Students- were doing His will and were teachable. They teach that since 1914 millions of people have been practicing true religion along with the 'faithful and discreet slave class. "4

First, this book clearly shows that there is an array of information exposing the Masonic influence and other corrutions and bankruptcies in their beliefs back in 1918. This investigation casts serious questions on how clean and pure the Bible Students were of occultic influences in Russell's day. Are people to believe that God judged in 1918, and that he judged all groups to determine which would dispense his "new light" to the world—and that He rejected everyone but the Jehovah's Witnesses because they practiced sins, yet accepted the Jehovah's Witnesses' Watchtower Society which practiced these same kind of sins?


4 You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth, (Brooklyn: WTB&TS) 1982, p. 193

The Watchtower Society has distanced itself from C.T. Russell. At least they think they have, and they do when its convenient to avoid criticism of him, but they talk out of the other side of their mouth (thereby having a forked tongue) whenever they can get some positive mileage from C.T. Russell as to how great C.T. Russell's wonderful enlightenment about 1914 was. It was God's spirit that was directing the Watchtower's work from the very beginning. Further, we are told that the Jehovah's Witnesses were the only teachable ones in 1918.5

Russell's foresight didn't exist. What Russell actually prophesied to happen in 1874, 1878, 1910, and 1914 never came true.

Supposedly Jehovah scrutinized all the Christian churches and rejected them all as un-teachable and false, indeed unworthy to be his people. God found not a single sincere orthodox Christian.

What were these evil Christians doing? They were, the record shows, warning Bible Students that Russell's crack- pot theories on the pyramid were unscriptural. The record shows men like Rev. A. B. Simpson warning the Bible Students about the "spirits of devils" who are reviving the forces of Egyptian magic.6 The record shows people warning the International Bible Students not to consult familiar spirits (cf. Deut. 18:9-12) Yet, God supposedly rejected these Christians for rejecting Pastor Russell. God (says the Watchtower) liked Russell, because he was so teachable, (so teachable we might add that Russell ignored all the valid criticism from the churches about his false prophecies, and his pyramid beliefs, and his occultic practices, etc.) NOTES

5 Macmillan, A.H., Faith on the March. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1957,pp.44-62.

6 Spiritism Ancient and Modern. p. 152

Can anyone seriously believe God rejected the Christians? The Society itself has published articles condemning Russell's beliefs as Satanic. "The Great Pyramid ... a manifestation of Devil religion, and was built in furtherance of such religion" (WT May 15, 1956) p. 300. And on page 298 of the same article (without mentioning that the Watchtower Society itself believed the Great Pyramid was God's second Bible)- states, "Rather is it not an insult to God to hold that he felt it necessary to corroborate his inspired Word by some mute edifice? And that its meaning should be hidden from man for several thousand years and revealed only at a time when the structure had been robbed of all its external beauty?"

This article in 1956, goes on to show how people who believe in the Great Pyramid are outside of God's will, and are not "magnifying the name of Jehovah." The same could be said of people who put the ancient Egyptian trinity- - winged-sun-disk on their books, and who preached Christ returned in 1874, and who incorporated Masonic beliefs into their religion.

By their own word they will be condemned.

Russell said the sin of witchcraft is that people trust erring human judgement in preference to the infallible divine judgement. (Comments on 1 Sam. 15:23 at WT R p.1888)

The Awake! March 8,1990 p. 15, would like their readers to believe that any contact with the occult is lethal spiritually. "Youths today who desire Jehovah's friendship will similarly steer clear of anything associated with the occult ... That would include all films, books ,... with spiritistic is lethal."

It is lethal enough to disfellowship someone today, and if it is really lethal, what did it do to Russell and Rutherford?

At what point did God find the JWs the clean organization they claim God's organization must be. At any point in time that they supposedly became clean, it can be pointed out that their hierarchy (leadership) must have had tainted unauthorized baptisms from their past. Russell and his sister were baptized by an Adventist friend John H. Paton.

Now that their Governing Body has taken over most of the President's authority, the JW literature says God's organization could never be run by one man, therefore the religions of Christendom run by one man are false. It's interesting how they forget their own history. Hopefully, this book will contribute to the past not being forgotten and rewritten.

Chapter 14:        A FINAL LOOK
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First, an overview of what the book has shown will be given. Next some questions will be answered. Then an analysis of what this information means.


First, it is clear that Russell knew detailed information about the Masons.

Second, Russell's background was conducive to Masonic membership, and placed him in an excellent position to learn about the Masons.

Third, in spite of his own warnings that Freemasonry promotes "profane worship", and in spite of his detailed knowledge of Masonry, Russell picks for his organization Masonic logos, symbols, and names.

Fourth, an overview of his writings and speeches show an almost continual repetition of Masonic teachings, Masonic buzzwords, and tolerance toward Freemasonry.

Fifth, Russell elevates his teachings above everyone else including the Freemasons. It was no accident when he printed two ex-Mason Bible Students' letters which praised his anti- Masonic stance. It was his way of building up his reputation. He is the only one with true brotherhood, and only his followers have true love. No organization is exempt from his criticism. His self-elevation and demeaning of most everyone else, should not be mistaken or confused as being a rejection of Masonic ideas and principles. Sure, Russell has dispensed with the boyish pranks of handshakes and passwords. Still, he sees the Masonic order as a pattern of the "fellowship of mystery", God's secret order, better known as the church. Sixth, Russell's beliefs dovetail with the Masons.

Seventh, Russell's thirst to examine all the heresies in his personal studies, especially the likes of the Knights Templar, make it difficult to imagine that Russell didn't study the Knights Templar.


1.                       Not all Scot-Presbyterians were Masons, and the words "Jehovah" and "light" are not the exclusive reserve of the Masons, isn't the case overblown? Although these words are used by others, they are used excessively by Russell. The Knights Templar logo hasn't been used by everyone. Those who have seen it before need to prove that whoever is using it is definitely not a Freemason or close to one. It must be borne in mind, that Russell had unlimited choices of logos and symbols, and an unlimited supply had he so desired of logos that were completely untainted of Freemasonry. Why would an informed leader surrounded by "enemies" pick such tainted symbols?

2.          Did Russell have time to be a Mason? According to Ron Sutherland, an ex-32° mason, a mason is free to devote as much or little of his time to the order as he chooses. Russell could have kept his busy schedule and still been a member.1

3.                       From the quotes and descriptions of Russell's beliefs it sounds as if he borrowed from several different types of Freemasonry. Doesn't that show that this is all coincidence, rather than him having a membership in one place and deriving one particular type of Masonry? There are indeed several schools of Freemasonry thought. Each of these four schools has its own symbols and ceremonies, and approach toward Masonry. However, it is clear that modern Masonic writers have often been influenced by and borrowed from more than one school.2


1 Interview with Ron Sutherland by author

2 Ancient Mvstic Rites, p.2


A close examination of Masonic leaders show that many of the York Rite have also become 33° Scottish Rite (occult) members and Shriners too (the Moslem oriented group).

4. What significance is there if C.T. Russell borrowed from the Masons?

In the book What Has Religion Done for Mankind? the Watchtower Society spells out its policy which is still rigorously adherred to, that is, that there will be no compromise with the world and false religion.

In reference to Jehovah's strict instructions to the Israelites to stay separate and clean of the pagan peoples of Palestine, they write, p.155,

"But was this not the rankest kind of religious intolerance as well as genocide? ... Not at all! This was the divine command and it was in favor of keeping the pure religion alive in the form God gave. The pure and the false could not exist side by side without hurt to his people and danger to their opportunity for eternal life in the new world."

Page 323 begins a chapter "Pure Religion Alone Survives the World's End."

The Society has repeatedly gone on record condemning Freemasonry as Satanic. Either Freemasonry is or it is not Satanic. That is, either Satan and the demons have played a role in Masonry or they haven't. If the present-day Society is correct that Freemasonry is satanic, then how do they reconcile that with the fact that their founder borrowed from it. How could God's pure spirit have existed side by side with C.T. Russell's and Rutherford's tainted organizations?

How does one reconcile this book's information with the Watchtower's statements on p. 308 of What Has Religion Done for Mankind?

"Under the guidance of God's spirit of freedom the magazine today known as The Watchtower but known back there as Zion's Watch Tower, began to be published in July, 1879 ... The better to organize, serve and activate this work of liberating God's devoted people by the power of the truth, the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society was incorporated in Pennsylvania, United States of America, in 1884. The remnant of Jehovah's witnesses have used this legal corporation as their servant or agent ever since."

The Watchtower Society stresses that only pure religion is acceptable to Jehovah God.

The Watchtower states Freemasonry is satanic.

The Watchtower was contaminated with ideas from the occult and Freemasonry in its first years.

The Society's claim is that they are the only righteous ones on the earth. The New Heavens and a New Earth, p.328, "on earth today the New World Society is the only group that is doing a true constructive work ... all the battle of Armageddon God will destroy..."

They downplay that now.     >>They totally ignore that now! The Flock does not even know about the past.<<

Rutherford's claims that crosses, wind chimes, holiday cards, church steeples, national flags etc., are demonic, make it hard to accept both his organization and Russell's could be God's chosen people. The two time periods seem mutually exclusive. Now this book presents evidence that devastates both times periods even more.

The tons of nice sounding literature produced can not erase history. And if that history includes the Freemasons, then the organization needs to re-examine their claims.

5. Doesn't this book present an unbalanced view of the Jehovah' Witnesses?

This is a good question to answer, because it will be asked. The point will be made that the JWs actually take people out of the occult and convert them.

In response to that claim, I submit a parallel. Is a person saved from Nationalism, if say, he gives up his strong nationalistic feelings for Germany, moves to the U.S., and then develops strong nationalistic feelings for the U.S.? Is German nationalism "nationalism", but American nationalism something else? No, that would be a double standard. Likewise, to save someone in the occult, by introducing him to a religion that received its doctrines during the 20's thru 40's from fallen angels, and which boasts that it adherents are slaves, is like trading German for American nationalism. The appearance may deceive some people, but the bondage is still there.

6. Are there more details concerning Russell's family's help?

Pastor Russell's two uncles were named Alexander G., and Charles T. His two aunts were Fannie, and Mary Jane. Charles T. Sr. lived in Pittsburgh, and had contact with Charles T. Jr. He was supportive of his nephew.

Due to a misunderstanding, one writer about Russell's family, indicated his step-mother was against him. That is not accurate. She was a Bible Student. She and Pastor Russell's father bought land in Manitee Co., FL. where they lived with another family member Mabel. Joseph L., his father, contributed letters to the WT on three occasions, May 1888 (p.2), Mar. 1889 ( p.8), and June 11, 1889. He was very supportive of everything Charles was doing. He wrote, "The most regret I have and the only thing which makes me feel dissatisfied with myself is that I cannot do more than I am doing for the cause of truth." By truth he meant his son's views.

His sister and her two daughters played active roles in the movement, and were constant headquarter workers.

The roles that these people played in Russell's life should be looked into in even greater detail. One part they played in Russell's life was that they were part of his original Bible study group. The role that original Bible study group played on Russell's beliefs has also been neglected. It is possible that the philosophy that there was permission of evil originated out of that Bible study group. Together they lead each other on in the direction that they and Russell went.

<<< The author would like to investigate men like elder Bro. Russell in Dublin, Ire. to see if he was related in any way with Pastor Russell.

The whole area of Russell's family's involvement in the movement needs further investigation.


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Family & Bible Study Friend

F-F Joseph L Russell

F-W Maria F. Russell

FL-M W. I. Mann

Masons, Knights Templar, Christadelphians, heresies, mystical and fringe Christian groups KT Knights Templar

R Rosicrucians

C-G Christadelphians

C-W Dr. Benjamin Wilson

Second Adventists A-W Jonas Wendall A-St George Storrs A-S Joseph A. Seiss A-B Nelson Barbour A-P Paton

Other Christian Experts & Premillenialists EX-P Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth        P-Bo Thomas

EX-V Prof. Isaac N. Vail                Bowen
P-Bi Bickersteth

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1876               Philadelphia

1876               North central and north eastern U.S.

1880, June           tour to Boston

1880, Fall             tour to New York State

1891, July-Aug. World tour-British Isles. Central Europe. Egypt Palestine. Russia (Bessarabia)

1898, Oct.        tour to Council Bluffs, IO 

1899, Summer-Fall tour to mid-west and eastern U.S.

1900, Oct.        tour in TX

1900, Winter trip to FL

1903, Apr.-June tour of northern and central Europe 1904,May first extensive tour of west to TX, CA, OR, WA & MINN.

1905, Sept. Western tour TX, CO, CA, WA & Chicago 1905,Winter tour to FL

1907, July Western tour to Chicago, Denver, L.A, Seattle, and Wisconsin

1908, Apr.           British Isles

1908, July tour to TX then to MO

1909, Spring moved headquarters to Brooklyn,N.Y.

1909, May British Isles. Scandinavia. Germany. 

1909, JulyGrand tour of U.S. from N.Y. to L.A, to Seattle, to Chicago

1909, Oct. tour of Canadian Maritime provinces 

1909, Dec.   trip to Wisconsin

1909, Dec til 1910,Jan. Grand tour to S.E. U.S.(Ark.) up Canadian prairie provinces, then to Ontario 

1910, Feb.   trip to Tampa,FL

1910, Apr.       tour central Europe. Great Britian. Egypt. Palestine

1910, June trip west to Chicago

1910, Oct.-Nov. Great Britian

1911, Mar. -Apr. Great Britian. central Europe. Sweden 

1911, June-July Grand Tour to west Denver, L.A, Victoria, B. C., Winnipeg

1911, Oct.-Nov Great Britian

191l, Dec.       World Tour TX,L.A.,CA, San Francisco, Japan

1912, Jan.-Mar. Hawaii. Japan. China.India. Far East. Mid East. Greece. Italy.France.Great Britian 

1912, Apr.                       tour SE U.S.

1912, July-Aug. tour Gr. Britian, France. Switz..Germany 

1912, Oct.  northern tour to Springfield,IL,Ontario then to Halifax, Can.

1913, Feb.-Mar. Caribbean tour-FL, Panama. Jamaica. & - Cuba

1913, June-July Grand U.S. tour- to ARK, CA, WI, ONT, MASS., and N.Carolina

1913, Aug.      Great Britian

1914, June-July tour of U.S./CAN.- Chicago, Vancouver, B.C., TX, GA, NY

1915, May-June to MO, TX, CAB.C., MONT., CO, IL 

1915, July-Aug. to NY,ONT., & Maine

1915, Oct.       Midwest tour including Mich. & KS

1915, Nov. Montreal, Quebec, and Mich.

1915, Dec.       to Alabama

1916, Jan.       to Illinois

1916, Feb.       to Florida

1916, Mar. to Ont, Can. and onto N. Carolina

1916, Sept.      Western tour - L.A,Seattle, Duluth

1916, Oct.       Western tour - Lancing, MI, Wichita, KS and to the major Texas cities, L.A, to meet his Creator.

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Have the churches failed to meet your expectations?

Whether you are a Freemason, Jehovah's Witness, Christian or otherwise this appendix will have some interesting answers for you.

Mr. Jehovah's Witness feels the author has put himself in an untenable position. The Jehovah Witness, Jay for short, will point out that the author clearly doesn't believe in universal salvation. And if salvation is not universal then what select group is God's organization? And what better group than the Jehovah's Witnesses, Jay will say.

First, salvation does not come through an organization. The name given, and the only name according to scriptures by which salvation comes is Jesus Christ. (Acts 4:12)

How should we view other men? Scriptures say Let God be true, and all men liars. If we count all men liars, then add one liar to another liar and what do you get? Therefore, in comparison to God, a group of men is a group of liars.

Yet, many Christians are still looking for some Christian group to lead them by the hand. Which denomination is right? Where is truth? They ask amiss. The answer is not where is truth, but Who is truth. Learn to love and depend on Jesus. Accept his person and teachings as truth.

For those who are wrestling with this issue, here is a story about a man seeking truth.


There once was a man who ask himself, "Would the Lord want me to stay in a congregation where the members have such weak spiritual knowledge, and indeeed some of the members are not what they should be?"

So he began to visit all the churches he could, and to study all the different denominations, until finally he gave up in frustration. Then one day he met an old woman. Since he had to sit on the same seat as her for their trip, he got a chance to pour his troubled soul out to her.

"Oh, so you're a wandering saint?", she said. "I too took my eyes off the Lord, and focused on the faults and failings of Christ's disciples."

The man was still focused on his problem.

"Surely there must be a church somewhere, where there is no quarreling and fighting. Surely there is a church somewhere that understands the gospel completely? Surely there is church that is God's church."

At this the man repeated his oft asked question, "Would the Lord want me in such a church that believes wrong things and has all these faults?"

"Yes, he does," said the woman. "For Christ is your example to follow. Can you imagine Him leaving the church the minute there was trouble in it? I'm afraid if it were so, he would not have anywhere to fellowship regularly. Just look what He stood and took from His little flock of disciples that he pastored for about three years. You're saying you're only wanting a church with the right doctrines, but you know people are imperfect How do you separate a man's doctrinal stance from his morality? The scriptures relate the two, and you've likely noticed how people's theology can be the result of their morality. As I was saying, Christ's disciples were far from being perfect. But Christ never thought of leaving them."

"Did you ever think of Christ as a pastor, and what happened in His congregation? Why, one of the first things was a split. The way was just a little too narrow for them, and many of his disciples went back and walked no more with Him. He was left with only 12, they were not perfect

either. John 6:66-67

"Oh, you're right, God has a church. Let's just discuss what it's first congregation was like. Now don't you think a congregation of 12 ought to be easy to get along with? Think of it. Just twelve, and the Lord Jesus as Pastor. Surely here is a perfect church if there ever was one. A perfect pastor, and a few saints. What an ideal combination. That is what most of the "Wandering Saints" are looking for. They simply want the perfect pastor, and a few dedicated sincere men to make up their perfect church. It's easier to make sure there are absolutely no heresies if you know everyone personally.

"But what do you find among the Lord's disciples? Perfection indeed! Why, there was enmity and strife for they repeatedly disputed among themselves, who should be the greatest? Mark 9:33-35. There were self-seekers, too, in the Lord's church. Can't you remember when the Lord wa speaking of his betrayal and death, the Mother of James and John interupted Him, to suggest that her two sons would be a nice pair to sit with him on his throne, one to right, and one on the left? How's that for politics? Mt. 20:17-27.

"Quarreling hadn't settled the who was greatest issue so their mother who had done sweet things to the Lord used her pull to persuade the Lord that her sons were the right ones. But the Lord let them know he has no pets.

"Then some of the disciples tried to keep him away from the children. And when folks in Samaria didn't convert, John and James wanted to kill them. What would you think today of a missionary wanting to shoot the heathen. Twice Jesus pleaded with the disciples to give the people something to eat, but no, they suggested it would be better to send them all home even if they fainted by the wayside. It appears that this wasn't just a lack of faith, but also some lack of love. Mk. 7:34-43; 8:1-9.

"Jesus' congregation's only official, the treasurer, was a thief. Actually he was more than that, he was a devil. Can you imagine letting a man like Judas hold the money bag? Jn. 1:6, 6:70-71

"Were the disciples getting any wiser for all the personal instruction the perfect Teacher was giving them? How many times did Jesus find himself correcting them and reteaching

the same old truths? In the last year of His ministry, (Mt. 19:24) the disciples ask him "Who then can be saved?" showing us how after two years of personal instruction, they still didn't understand the doctrine of salvation. And were they teachable? At the last supper, Jesus had to threaten Peter with disfellowshipping, and right after the Lord's supper, they quarreled again as to who would be greatest. Many Christians today would walk out of a church like that. But the Lord did not forsake them.

"No, Christ knew what in man, before He began this adventure in saving mankind. He went into it with His eyes open. All He asks is that we remain in fellowship with Him, and allow Him to work His likeness and will in us; He's doing the best He can with the material on hand.


Many JWs and some Freemasons have related to me how their expectations for the churches were disappointed.

One 32° Mason said, "Are the Masons a religion? Yes and no. If the men don't learn it in the churches, then they learn it where they can- at the lodge."

Two things have failed. This man has spent his entire time going to churches with the wrong expectations. The other is that the churches have indeed failed to set him on a proper course.

There are plenty of unqualified teachers in Christendom.

But who did Christ say would be our teacher? He sent the Holy Spirit for that special task. The key is not hidden knowledge revealed through rituals or the Watchtower's books, the key is the HOLY SPIRIT.

Christ was willing to talk and teach everybody, for He cares about each one. If Christ was here with you, I believe he might say something like the following teaching on the Holy Spirit,(and except where He speaks in parable these stories are true),

Listen, now I speak to you a parable. There was a man driving to the mountain Mt. St. Helens. He picked up a hitchhiker. Soon afterwards, he allowed the

hitchhiker to drive. However, the hitchhiker began driving in a direction that the man had not planned, so he took back the steering wheel again. About this time, the man heard on his radio the news about Mt. St. Helens eruption.

Now the hitchhiker was the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit comes like a mysterious stranger, and he comes to call the lost driver. Woe to those who are confident in their own driving abilities, for they shall be lost. Blessed are those who are filled with the Holy Spirit, for trully I tell you, being filled with the Holy Spirit means to to let the Spirit of God control your life. The car in the parable is a man's earthly journey. Listen, a car serves not two, but only one steering wheel. Do not think you and the Holy Spirit can both drive your car together. A car goes but one direction at a time. Many will say they have prophesied in my name, but the Holy Spirit never controlled their lives, and I knew them not.

For some others will say, we have no need of this Holy Spirit, our lives are fine, let us be. Go make disciples of the weak, blind, sick, and heavy laden, but let us be.

It is written, pride goes before the fall. Are you trully that sure of yourself?

Have you not yourself noticed how wise and intelligent the universe's creator must be. For you study the fine-tunes heavens, and you study the details of the many complex designs in nature, and you marvel. You say God is wise, and that this all-wise God knows what is best in our lives.

And have you also not noticed the almighty power of the universe's creator, does he not have the power to accomplish what is best for you.

And again I ask, do you not feel his strong love, how he gave you life and salvation, a love for you surpassing anyone else's.

Then do not marvel, if I tell you that the logical thing for man is to surrender his life to the Spirit.

Whoever does the will of the Spirit of God is my brother and sister, and yours too. Have you understood all these things? then go and do likewise.

Now there was a certain fundamentalist minister, who didn't believe that the gifts of the Holy Spirit are given today.

He was sure the gifts of the Holy Spirit were only for the first generation and only apostolic in nature. He put together a sermon on the matter. And it was the best sermon of his life. He preached with enthusiasm and the people were excited.

The next week during his quiet hour, the Spirit of God came upon him and he prayed in an unknown tongue. So the following Sunday, his conscience caused him to deeply apologize for his good sermon to his church. Some were unable to bear this, and left his church.

Truly, I say to you, be slow to judge those who do strange things by the Spirit. Remember, that no one who works a miracle in the name of Christ can soon afterward speak evil of Christ. Do not presume to know the power of God.

Forget all things, and leave them behind, and run the race the Holy Spirit leads you in.

For I tell you, you conscience is a good thing, but it must be trained. What man would pay attention to his watch if it weren't set correctly? So set your consciences to the correct standard. The spirit of God has spoken through the Word of God. Blessed is the man who loves the Word of God, for it will be a path to his feet. The word was co-authored by the Holy Spirit. If you would understand the Spirit better, read his book.

Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for the Holy Spirit, for they shall be filled. As it is written, 'As the deer pants for water, so my soul pants for thee, O God the Holy Spirit. My soul thirsts for the living God.

Have you not read in Dr. Luke's account how the Holy Spirit fell on men reading and hearing the Word of God?

Woe to you who set all kinds of conditions for how to get the Spirit of God. The wind blows where it wants, and you can't even explain where it's been.

Listen, there was a certain weathy man who walked into a jail one day. Out of his love for the abused prisoners, he told them he would post bail on all of them, and that then they would be free to live and work with him. They would not have to face their charges, he could take care of that. He posted bail for all the prisoners, but some refused the gift and

remained instead in jail. Now the Spirit is a gift like this bail, but it is only good if you accept it. And it must be accepted on faith, step by step.

Again, the Spirit of God is like a boy on a camping trip at night. He was trying to fetch wood from the cabin, but he couldn't see but one foot in front of him. But having faith in his father's encouragement to only step as far as he could see, a step at a time, he proceeded to bring back the wood from the woodpile.

Do not grieve the Holy Spirit. As the prophet Ezekiel wrote, "He put his Spirit in us to cause us to walk in his statutes." The Law is the Law of the Spirit and it is not written in ink on paper, but has been faxed by the Spirit into your heart.

Now the wise man Soloman said, "As a man thinketh, so is he." As he thinks—but then how many of us think? How many of us lead no-existent lives? Paul wrote by the Spirit's direction, "To be carnally minded is death, to be spiritually minded is life and peace." Repent of your carnal mind, confess your sin, and this will re-open the door to the Holy Spirit to create a temple of your body.

There was a certain Norwegian explorer who was trying to reach the North Pole. After many difficult months of being away from the people he'd left behind, he wrote a little message and attached it to his carrier pigeon. When the carrier pigeon was released, it circled 3 times and then headed south. It flew 1,000 miles over the artic ice, and 1,000 miles over the ocean and finally arrived at the explorer's home in Norway. The explorer's wife knew her husband was safe.

And so it is with the heavenly Dove, who has been sent from heaven, to comfort you. The heavenly Dove bears witness of a number of things, first that Christ lives.

We would not question that the pigeon was thoroughly familiar with the home it went to—why should we question whether the heavenly Spirit knows His homes intimately also? Truly, I speak to you. The heavenly Dove knows you very well, even before it brought you Christ's message.

Again, I tell you there was a photo in a newspaper showing a man lifting a piano, but the crane and cable doing the lifting were not visible. Likewise, the Holy Spirit is

lifting your spirits, but is not visible. How many of you when seeing someone drunk, or on speed, euphoric with dope, wired on some stimulants, or deadened from a tranquillizer would not immediately recognize the power controlling these people. Why then should we have difficulty seeing the Holy Spirit when we see mighty works, or tranquil peace, or speaking in tongues a if drunk.

Have you not heard how the Holy Spirit helped Gideon blow his trumpet, and Samson kill a lion, and Saul become a new man?

Have you not read where the scriptures say, "The Spirit of the Lord God is upon Me, Because the Lord has annointed Me To preach good tidings to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the prison to those who are bound, To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who mourn...

There was a certain German soldier in the Second World War who was home wounded. His mother was very concerned about him, and kept after him until he agreed to go for medical attention at a nearby military hospital. When he entered the hospital, a sign pointed down one hall for enlisted men, and another for officers. He took the enlisted men's hall. At the end of that hall, was another sign, this time pointing one way for "seriously wounded" and down another corridor for the "slightly wounded". He took the slightly wounded route. At the end of that hall was another division. The sign indicated one way for party members, and another way for non-party individuals. He took the "non-party" direction which came to a door. He open the door and stepped through it, and found himself outside of the hospital.

Now when he returned home inquired how it went. "Did they do any good at the hospital?"

"You wouldn't believe how well-organized they were, but I wasn't able to do much good there.

When the Holy Spirit walks through the halls of your mind and your life, and the doctines of your church, and your church itself—will he come back saying, "You wouldn't believe how well organized they were, but I wasn't able to do

much good."

Do you know that the Holy Spirit departed King Saul yet returned to him while he was still evil, causing him to prophecy?

Do you not know how the scriptures say that after King David had the Holy Spirit, he kept the Spirit even when in adultery, and that his prayer after realizing he'd sinned, was not "Holy Spirit return", but Holy Spirit don't leave me"?

Do you really think you can box in the truth about the Holy Spirit? Do you yourselves not say the ways of God are higher than ourselves, that God is awesome and difficult to describe. Woe to those who think they can box in God the Holy Spirit, and the power of God the Holy Spirit

Have you not read that the Holy Spirit "came upon" Balaam, an unconverted man, who had no lasting or voluntary relationship with the Spirit, and yet you try to define Biblical men's relationships with the Holy Spirit by what preposition is used in your particular English Bible translation, whether it be "in","with","among","upon", or others. Truly, I say to you, if you knew the scriptures, you would not follow such baseless theories.

Who do you say the Holy Spirit is? Blessed is he, who worships the Spirit.

For in times past, they annointed with oil, but now you are annointed with the Spirit. In times past, man was created, but now you are created a new creature—a spiritual man. The oil you put in your car is vital to many of the car's functions. It reduces friction, transfers heat so the engine doesn't melt and other functions. The oil of the Old Covenant is now replaced by the new oil of the Holy Spirit, who runs the body. It is rare for a mechanic to save the can after he uses its oil. Likewise, you should value the Spirit more than your earthen-ware body. You are a jar—a container for whatever spirit you contain.

The Jews looked for a beautiful unbreakable container, one that was child and cross prove. Blessed are those who do not reject the Holy Spirit.

No power to lift man up has come to man except that power which has come down from heaven. This is what separates the true gift of faith from all religions.

There is no greater gift than the gift of faith which the Spirit can give a man. The Scriptures testify how Abraham's promises of faith were linked to the promise of the Holy Spirit.

Blessed is the man who carries the treasure of faith, which is the Spirit of Faith in his earthen vessel.

If God would raise up stones to testify of Him, do you not think he can use the Holy Spirit? Which is harder to raise for a testimony, a stone or a book? You have heard it said that the scriptures are inspired of God, but I say to you, that great men, and spiritual gifts, and good books, and hymns of praise are also inspired.

Judge not, that you be not judged. The measure of the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Faith, the oil of gladness you give, will be the measure you get. But do not give the Holy Spirit to the dogs. Apart from the Holy Spirit you can do nothing. Christ and the Spirit are one, and those who would meet Christ, must meet the Spirit. If anyone does not have the Spirit, he does not belong to Christ (Rm.8).

A certain wealthy man visited an old man in a shack. He inquired how much the man wanted for his property. The old man, not realizing what would happen, said $100,000. The rich man wrote him a check for this amount, and left for his home. After some time, the old man felt guilty. When he looked at the old shack, he knew it wasn't worth $100,000, so he began patching it up. When the rich man returned, the old man prouldly showed his patched & painted shack, but the rich man, was unimpressed because he wanted to bulldoze the shack and build a nice big new mansion. So it is with the Spirit of God. He visits old shacks, but he wants to bulldoze them and build new. He doesn't care for a patched up old sinner. He wants to create a spiritual life. For life, there needs to be a birth. Blessed are they who like King David gave their bodies to become temples of the Holy Spirit.

Back to TOC

20:7      202
18:9-12 206
15:23     207
9          17
3:29      193
38:4-7   51
1:1        201
25:14    137
92:7        193
118:22  51
119:97-104        148
3:7,8     204
21:1      204
16:7      204
3:1        preface
28:16    51
28:17    147
40-46     125
45:23     147
55:9      137

3:20      51
23:6      125
33:16    125
51:7      154
1:8-16   204
9:20      204
12:10     136
4:2          147
2:14        147
3:13-4:3            125
4:2        125-126

5: 33-3 7           202
7:6          13 8
7:14      141
11:25,26            144
21:42     51
22:37-39               198
23 :16-22              202
25:4        203
26:28     56
12:30,31            198
8:10      145
11:2        145
1:11,12 140
10:29    142
13: 35   30
14:25, 26           201
16:13,14            201
18:20    201
14:15     204
24:16     204
8:9        143
8:38,39  142
2:10      137
2:14      137
3:7          159
4:10        140
15:25,26                147
15:28     147
6:14        201
6:15-18  201
6:17        156
3:29        141
6:4          204
6:10        143
4:2          159
5:11,12 201

1:4,5     158
2:4        158
2:8          172
5:21        201
2:6          136
2:12-15 50
3:5          158
2:11-17  203
6:1        137
9:22        56
12:23     139,146
2:5          145
5:12        202
1              PT
3:15,16  204

3:19,20  185
2 PT 1:10,11          148
3:1        140
3:16      141
4:1        201
4:1-3     159
21:9      146

Back to TOC



from July 1, 1879--1909 Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence
1909-1939 The Watchtower and Herald of Christ's Presence
Mar. 1939-present The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah's

Kingdom (commonly known as The Watchtower) WT R=Reprints

The following magazine has had its name spelled out, and has been variously called...

Oct. 1919-Oct. 1937 The Golden Age
Oct. 1937-1946 Consolation
1946—present Awake!


Chicago Bible Students. Harvest Gleanings, Vol. II, Newspaper Sermons of C.T. Russell, 1901-1910.

Edgar, Morton. Mythology and the Bible. Glasgow, Scotland (n.d.)

Horowitz, David. Pastor Charles Taze Russell. NY:Philosophical

Library, 1986.

Johnson, Paul S.L. Spiritism-Ancient and Modem. Philadelphia, PA: Paul S.L. Johnson, 1935.

Jones, Dr. L.W., Convention Reports. Chicago, IL.

What Pastor Russell Said. (1910, & 1911 editions), Brooklyn: NY.

International Bible Students.

Macmillan, A.H. Faith on the March. Englewood Cliffs, N J.: Prentice -

Hall, Inc, 1957.

Russell, Jr., Charles Taze. Must We Abandon Hope of a Golden Age (4/98)-- tract from series of quarterly tracts from 1889-1909 period.

......... Photodrama of Creation of 1914 & the Scenario. Brooklyn, NY: I.B.SA., 1914.            

........ Studies in the Scripture, Vol. I-VII, Allegheny.Pa & Brooklyn,NY: WTBTS a.k.a. Millenial Dawn Series, various editions from 1886-1917

What say the Scriptures About Our Lord's Return. Brooklyn.NY: WTBTS, 1917


Rutherford, Joseph F., Angels

  ............. Light III

Preservation (1932)     

Talking with the Dead

............. Vindication III

Smith, J.G. Angels and Women. NY.NY: AB. Abac Co., 1924

WTB&TS (anonymous) Aid to Bible Understanding (1971)         

Convention Reports (various years 1910,1911,1919) J Pastor Russell's Sermons (pub. IBSA & Peoples Pulpit Assoc.)

.......... Revelation, It's Grand Climax At Hand (1988)         

.......... Souvenir Report of B.S. Convention (Pittsburgh.PA. 1/2-5/1919)    

.......... This Means Everlasting Life (1950)    

.......... What Pastor Russell Taught (no date)            

.......... What Has Religion Done for Mankind? (195 1)

You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth (1982)

... 1976 Yearbook (1975)

.... 1974 Yearbook(1973)

.... 1983 Yearbook(1982)


Wisdom, William & Bible Students (comp.). The Laodicean Messenger, His Life Works and Character. Chicago, IL., Bible Students, 1923.

B. Magazines, Interviews, Letters, etc.

Golke, Mrs. telephone interview with author

Hennings, letter to C.T. Russell.

Movies, Olin R. , 7/21/39 letter to Rutherford

Overland Monthly (collection of articles)

People's Pulpit (periodical) Pike, Basil and Ed (statements)

Russell, C.T., article in Bible Examiner Oct. 1876, p.27    

............ Spiritism is Demonism (tract)

Russell, C.T. with N.H. Barbour and J.H. Paton. magazine, Herald of the Morning. (July 1878-June, 1879) Rochester, NY.




Braden, Charles S. These Also Believe. NY: MacMillan Co.,1949.

*Bergman, Dr. Jerry R. The Mental Health of Jehovah's Witnesses. Clayton, CA: printed by Witness, Inc.,1987

Connor, W.T. The Teachings of "Pastor" Russell. Fort Worth, TX (printed before Pastor Russell died)

Directory of Churches and Religious Organizations State of Oregon. Prepared by the Oregon Historical Records Survey Division of Professional and Service Projects Works Projects Administration, Official Project. No. 65-1-94-25, Portland, OR (July, 1940)

*Franz, Ray. Crisis of Conscience. Atlanta, GA: Commentary Press,1983.  >> One of the best!<<

*Goodrich, Roy. Demonism and the Watchtower. Fort Lauderdale,FL: the

Bible Way Publ.,1969

*Edmund, Gruss. Apostles of Denial. Presbyterian Pub. Co.,1970. *Harrison, Barbara G. Visions of Glory, A History and a Memory of

Jehovah's Witnesses, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1978.

*Jonsson, Carl Olof. The Gentile Times Reconsidered. Lethbridge and LaJolla, CA:Good News defender, 1983   >> One of the best!<<

*Magnani, Duane. The Heavenly Weatherman. Clayton, CA, Witness,Inc.,1987

............ The Moneymakers. Clayton, CA, Witness,Inc.,1986

*Penton, M. James. Apocalypse Delayed, the Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto, Ont.: University of Toronto Press: ,1986.  >>This is very good, too<<

*Springmeier, Fritz. Analysis of Religious Leaders, History, Issues, & Conversions with GA. Portland, Or. printed by F. Springmeier, 1989


Cole, Werner. The New Leader (periodical), 17 Oct. 1955

The Christian Globe (periodical)

Jamestown Evening Journal, Sat. Aug.6,1910 Interview with Pastor Russell Interviews and conversations with various people.

*Magnani, Duane. (Tape) "Angels of the New Light" 1987 Speech given to Penn. convention

Oregonian, Portland News

*Rawe, Richard. Discussions with author based on his research. Richard Rawe, Soap Lake, Wa.

*Schnell, WiIliam.(periodical) The Converted Jehovah's Witness Expositors




Anderson, Dr. James. The Constitution of the Freemason... London: Printer William Hunter, 1723.

Blavatsky, Helena P., Isis Unveiled: A Master-Key to the Mysteries of Ancient and Modern Science and Theology, 2 vois.,1877 reprint Theosophical University Press, Pasadena,CA,1972.

Chase. Chase's Digest of Masonic Law.

Churchward, Albert,30o, The Signs and Symbols of Primordal Man, The Evolution of Religious Doctrines from the Eschatology of the

Ancient Egyptians. London: George Allen & Co., Ltd., 1913.

Clausen, Henry C, 33o, Clausen's Commentaries on Morals and Dogma. San Diego,CA Neyenesch Printers, Inc., 1976.

Convent of the Grand Lodge of France.

Convent of the Grand Orient.

Dumenil, Lynn. Freemasonry and American Culture, 1880-1930. Princeton, N.J.:Princeton University Press, 1984

Gould, Robert Freke. The History of Freemasonry, Its Antiquities, Symbols, Constitution, Customs, etc. 4 Vol.,NY: Yorkston Co.

Hall, Manly P. Masonic, Hermatic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Sybolical Philosophy. San Francisco: printed by H.S. Crocker Co., 1928.

Hammer-Purgstall, J. von (Mystery of Baphomet Revealed) Mysterium Baphometis revelatum', Fundgruben des Orients, VI (1818).

Heindel, Max. The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception or Mystic Christianity. Oceanside, CA:The Rosicrucian Fellowship, 1909.

History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders.

The Kentucky Monitor, Fellowcraft Degrees. Handbook.

Leadbeater, Charles Webster. Ancient Mystic Rites (originally Glimpses of Masonic History-1926) reprinted by the Theosophical Pub. House, Wheaton,IL.,1986

Mackey, Albert G. 33o, An Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry Vol. I & II, Chicago: the Masonic History Co.,

........... Xexicon of Freemasonry

........... Mackey's Masonic Jurisprudence

Nutt, A Legends of the Holy Grail

Perkins, Lynn. Faith, Truth, Destiny, Decrees, Works—A Declaration of Faith in the Rebirth of Spiritual Masonry. Lakemont, GA CSA Press,1973

Pike, Aibert,33°, Morals and Dogma. Supreme Masonic Council of 33°, 1871 ed.

Proceedings of the M.W. Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of California.

Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of New York, Proceedings of the M.W. Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the

State of Oregon. 33rd Annual Con.,by Grand Master, 1883. Ram, N. Sri. On the Watchtower. York Rite.

Roberts, Allen E. Freemasonry in American History. Richmond, Va.: Macoy Pub. & Masonic Supply Co., 1985.

Robinson, John J. Born In Blood, The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. New York: M. Evans & Co., 1989.

Ronayne, , Handbook of Masonry

Ryan, Charles J., H.P. Blavatsky and the Theosophical Movement. Pasadena, CA :Theosophical University Press, 1937.

Sickels, Daniel, 33°, The General Ahiman Rezon and Freemason's Guide. NY: Masonic Pub. Co., 1871

Steinbrenner, G.W.(past master), Origin and Early History of Masonry. Ward, J.S.M. Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, Who was Hiram Abiff.


Interviews with various Freemasons

Knight Templar (periodical), Chicago, II. published by the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of USA

Los Angeles Freeman (periodicalO

"Texas Monitor" Masonic Burial Service

Trestleboard 10. (periodical)




Blancard, Charles A. Modern Secret Societies. Chicago: Nat. Christian Association, 1903.

Blanchard, J. Standard Freemasonry Illustrated. Chicago, IL. Ezra A. Cook Pub., 1920

Cahill, Rev. E. Freemasonry and the Anti-Christian Movement. Dublin, Ire., H. Gill & Son, Ltd.,1959.

*Ferguson, Charles W. 50 Million Brothers, A Panorama of American Lodges and Clubs. NY, 1937

*Finney, Charles G. The Character, Claims, & Practical Workings of

Freemasonry. Chicago,IL.,Nationai Christian Assoc., 1938

*Harris, Jack. Freemasonry: the Invisible Cult In Our Midst

Chattanooga,TN, 1983

Lady Queenborough. Occult Theocracy. CA: Christian Book Club of America,1931

Knight, Stephen. The Brotherhood. London.UK Granada Pub., 1984

*McClung, Claude. Why I Left Masonry. Springtown, TX (no date) MacKenzie, Norman. Secret Societies. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971

Partner, Peter. The Knights Templar and their Myth. Rochester, Vermont Destiny Books, 1987.

Schmidt, Greenwood Encyclopaedia of American Institutional Fraternal Organizations. Westport, Conn.,Greenwood Press, 1980.

*Shaw, Jim (ex-33o) and Tom McKenney. The Deadly Deception. Lafayettte, LA: Huntington House, Inc. 1988.

Tindal-Robertson, Timothy. Freemasonry and the Vatican. London: Britons Pub. Co., 1968

The Secret Powers Behind Revolution, Freemasonry and Judaism

(Poncins, Vicompte Leonde) London: Boswell Printing & Pub., Co. Ltd., 1929

Viollet-le-Duc. Dictionaire raisonne de l' architecture francaise du XIe au XVI siecle (Paris, 1868)

Webster, Nesta H., Secret Societies and Subversive Movements. Hawthorne, CA. Christian Book Qub of America, 1967.

World Family Encyclopaedia (1954 ed.)  


Chicago "Nya Wecko Posten" (news)

Portland Evening Telegram (news)

Portland's Oregon Journal (news)

Sutherland, Ron (ex-33o) Interview with author, Aug. 20,1990.  


Goodwin, S.H. Mormonism and Masonry.

McGavin, E. Cecil. Mormonism and Masonry. Salt Lake City, UT, 1956 Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy. Vol. I. The Years of Discovery. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.




Handbook of Denominations in the U.S. (7th ed.)

The Illustrated Book of All Religions (n.a., c.1860) Chicago.IL: Star Pub. Co.

Livingston, William. Watch-tower. New York. Printed by Hugh Gaine. 1754 (A series of William Livingston's essays).

MacLeod, John. Scottish Theology in Relation to Church History Since the Reformation, published by Knox Press & the Banner of Truth Trust, 1943.

Prince, Harold B. (ed. & comp.) A Presbyterian Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. & The Amer. Theological Library Assoc., 1983.



Bluhm, Heinz. Martin Luther: Creative Translator.

Marius, Richard. Luther. London: Quartet Book, Ltd., 1974

Schaffer, Francis A. How Should We Then Live? the Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture. Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, Co.,1976.




Andrews, S.J., God's Revelations of Himself to Men. NY: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1886

CBS New Almanac, 1978. by CBS News, Maplewood,NJ: 1977.

Geisler, Norman L. Christian Ethics Options and Issues. Grand Rapids, MI.:Baker Pub., 1989.

From, LeRoy Edwin. Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, Vol. I. Wah.,D.C.,The Review & Herald Pub. Assoc.,1978

Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology, Vol. III., Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdman's Pub., reprinted 1981.

Holy Scriptures-various translations NAS, AV, NWT, NIV, etc.

Hope, Murray. Practical Egyptian Magic. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984.

Hume, David. Natural History of Religion.

Schaff, Phillip. History of the Christian Church. Vol. II, NY: Charles Schribner & Sons, 1910

Strong, Augustus H. Systematic Theology. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 1907.

Thurston, George H. (comp.), Directory for 1856-1857 of Pittsburgh and Allegheny al. Published by George H. Thurston, 1856.

........... Directory for 1858-59 ........... Directory for 1859-60 ........... Directory for 1867-68 ........... Directory for 1869-70

U.S. 1850 Census, Ward 4, Allegheny, PA.

Western Pennslyvannia Genealogical Society (comp.) A List of Immigrants Who Applied for Naturalization Papers in the District Courts of

Allegheny County, Pa. Pittsburgh: the Society, 1978. Woodward & Rowland Pittsburgh Directory for 1852. Pittsburgh: printed by W.S. Haven, Book, and Fancy Job Printer, 1851.


To a woman's faith in Jesus Christ.


A special thanks to John Warren for the use of the Memorial library. A special thanks to Bill Dresselhaus, for without his support this project would never have gotten off the ground. Thanks to Gordon Teel, David Waltz, and John Warren for reading the manuscript and their comments.


Cover-Author's Drawing.

Author made halftones from several photos, p. 133 is from a photo of John Warren's taken by Brian Wittenmeyer. p. 69 is from John also, p.98 is from the 1910 Convention Report. The following pages of illustrations were taken from the author's library: 1,15,86,99,110,114,116,121,124,129,171. The following are from the M. Schuster Memorial Library at John Warren's, 23,50,78,79,82,83,105,106,107,108,109, 110,112,179,182, 213

Several came from older books on Egypt, 117,118,119,120. Two are from the Knights Templar Periodical -89,90. p.6 drawings came from Witness, Inc. book Who is the Faithful & Wise Servant.

Most illustrations are used with permission or are from outdated or uncopyrighted material. If the author has unwittingly infringed copyright in any pictures reproduced in this book, he offers his apology, -upon being satisfied as to the owner's title-will pay an appropriate fee.  

This book's fresh stimulating insights make the book a must  for the Christian, the researcher, the historian, and anyone interested in the Watchtower Movement.

What were the original sources of the Watchtower Movement? What were the sources of the many strange and seemingly unique doctrines of Charles Taze Russell, the founder of the Watchtower movement?

Researchers in the past have chosen to rely primarily on historical sources provided by Russell himself in an attempt to answer that question.

Fritz Springmeier has taken a different path in this new book. Rather than attempting to rehash old, worn out material, Mr. Springmeier, with bulldog like tenacity, has uncovered astonishing new evidence that links C.T. Russell with Freemasonry and the Occult! This book will raise many new questions on Russell's doctrines. -David Waltz, 4th generation Jehovah's Witness.

Fritz Springmeier is a Witness, lnc. missionary to Jehovah's Witnesses. He has attended West Point, U.S.M.A., Rosedale Bible Institute, and Clackamas Community College . He has written a small 7- volume series on Christian doctrine, a comic book "Adventures of 2 JWs", and a book "Refutation..." which refutes the JW belief that the Archangel Michael is Christ. He has also written on non-religious subjects. Fritz has travelled extensively world- wide, and lived in Europe, Africa, and Asia. He lives in Portland with his wife, Gayle, and son Michael, and another child on the way.